encoder.rs 93.4 KB
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// Copyright (c) 2018, The rav1e contributors. All rights reserved
//
// This source code is subject to the terms of the BSD 2 Clause License and
// the Alliance for Open Media Patent License 1.0. If the BSD 2 Clause License
// was not distributed with this source code in the LICENSE file, you can
// obtain it at www.aomedia.org/license/software. If the Alliance for Open
// Media Patent License 1.0 was not distributed with this source code in the
// PATENTS file, you can obtain it at www.aomedia.org/license/patent.

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use api::*;
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use cdef::*;
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use lrf::*;
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use context::*;
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use deblock::*;
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use segmentation::*;
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use ec::*;
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use partition::*;
use plane::*;
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use quantize::*;
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use rdo::*;
use std::fmt;
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use transform::*;
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use util::*;
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use me::*;
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use bitstream_io::{BitWriter, BigEndian, LittleEndian};
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use std;
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use std::io;
use std::io::*;
use std::rc::Rc;
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extern {
    pub fn av1_rtcd();
    pub fn aom_dsp_rtcd();
}

#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
pub struct Frame {
    pub planes: [Plane; 3]
}

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const FRAME_MARGIN: usize = 16 + SUBPEL_FILTER_SIZE;

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impl Frame {
    pub fn new(width: usize, height:usize) -> Frame {
        Frame {
            planes: [
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                Plane::new(
                    width, height,
                    0, 0,
                    MAX_SB_SIZE + FRAME_MARGIN, MAX_SB_SIZE + FRAME_MARGIN
                ),
                Plane::new(
                    width/2, height/2,
                    1, 1,
                    MAX_SB_SIZE/2 + FRAME_MARGIN, MAX_SB_SIZE/2 + FRAME_MARGIN
                ),
                Plane::new(
                    width/2, height/2,
                    1, 1,
                    MAX_SB_SIZE/2 + FRAME_MARGIN, MAX_SB_SIZE/2 + FRAME_MARGIN
                )
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            ]
        }
    }
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    pub fn pad(&mut self, w: usize, h: usize) {
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        for p in self.planes.iter_mut() {
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            p.pad(w, h);
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        }
    }
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    pub fn window(&self, sbo: &SuperBlockOffset) -> Frame {
        Frame {
            planes: [
                self.planes[0].window(&sbo.plane_offset(&self.planes[0].cfg)),
                self.planes[1].window(&sbo.plane_offset(&self.planes[1].cfg)),
                self.planes[2].window(&sbo.plane_offset(&self.planes[2].cfg))
            ]
        }
    }
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}

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#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
pub struct ReferenceFrame {
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  pub order_hint: u32,
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  pub frame: Frame,
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  pub input_hres: Plane,
  pub input_qres: Plane,
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  pub cdfs: CDFContext
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}

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#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct ReferenceFramesSet {
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    pub frames: [Option<Rc<ReferenceFrame>>; (REF_FRAMES as usize)],
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    pub deblock: [DeblockState; (REF_FRAMES as usize)]
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}

impl ReferenceFramesSet {
    pub fn new() -> ReferenceFramesSet {
        ReferenceFramesSet {
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            frames: Default::default(),
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            deblock: Default::default()
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        }
    }
}

const MAX_NUM_TEMPORAL_LAYERS: usize = 8;
const MAX_NUM_SPATIAL_LAYERS: usize = 4;
const MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS: usize = MAX_NUM_TEMPORAL_LAYERS * MAX_NUM_SPATIAL_LAYERS;

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pub const PRIMARY_REF_NONE: u32 = 7;
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const PRIMARY_REF_BITS: u32 = 3;

arg_enum!{
    #[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug, PartialEq)]
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    #[repr(C)]
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    pub enum Tune {
        Psnr,
        Psychovisual
    }
}

impl Default for Tune {
    fn default() -> Self {
        Tune::Psnr
    }
}

#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug, PartialEq)]
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#[repr(C)]
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pub enum ChromaSampling {
    Cs420,
    Cs422,
    Cs444
}

impl Default for ChromaSampling {
    fn default() -> Self {
        ChromaSampling::Cs420
    }
}

#[derive(Copy, Clone)]
pub struct Sequence {
  // OBU Sequence header of AV1
    pub profile: u8,
    pub num_bits_width: u32,
    pub num_bits_height: u32,
    pub bit_depth: usize,
    pub chroma_sampling: ChromaSampling,
    pub max_frame_width: u32,
    pub max_frame_height: u32,
    pub frame_id_numbers_present_flag: bool,
    pub frame_id_length: u32,
    pub delta_frame_id_length: u32,
    pub use_128x128_superblock: bool,
    pub order_hint_bits_minus_1: u32,
    pub force_screen_content_tools: u32,  // 0 - force off
                                           // 1 - force on
                                           // 2 - adaptive
    pub force_integer_mv: u32,      // 0 - Not to force. MV can be in 1/4 or 1/8
                                     // 1 - force to integer
                                     // 2 - adaptive
    pub still_picture: bool,               // Video is a single frame still picture
    pub reduced_still_picture_hdr: bool,   // Use reduced header for still picture
    pub monochrome: bool,                  // Monochrome video
    pub enable_filter_intra: bool,         // enables/disables filterintra
    pub enable_intra_edge_filter: bool,    // enables/disables corner/edge/upsampling
    pub enable_interintra_compound: bool,  // enables/disables interintra_compound
    pub enable_masked_compound: bool,      // enables/disables masked compound
    pub enable_dual_filter: bool,         // 0 - disable dual interpolation filter
                                          // 1 - enable vert/horiz filter selection
    pub enable_order_hint: bool,     // 0 - disable order hint, and related tools
                                     // jnt_comp, ref_frame_mvs, frame_sign_bias
                                     // if 0, enable_jnt_comp and
                                     // enable_ref_frame_mvs must be set zs 0.
    pub enable_jnt_comp: bool,        // 0 - disable joint compound modes
                                     // 1 - enable it
    pub enable_ref_frame_mvs: bool,  // 0 - disable ref frame mvs
                                     // 1 - enable it
    pub enable_warped_motion: bool,   // 0 - disable warped motion for sequence
                                     // 1 - enable it for the sequence
    pub enable_superres: bool,// 0 - Disable superres for the sequence, and disable
                              //     transmitting per-frame superres enabled flag.
                              // 1 - Enable superres for the sequence, and also
                              //     enable per-frame flag to denote if superres is
                              //     enabled for that frame.
    pub enable_cdef: bool,         // To turn on/off CDEF
    pub enable_restoration: bool,  // To turn on/off loop restoration
    pub operating_points_cnt_minus_1: usize,
    pub operating_point_idc: [u16; MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS],
    pub display_model_info_present_flag: bool,
    pub decoder_model_info_present_flag: bool,
    pub level: [[usize; 2]; MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS],	// minor, major
    pub tier: [usize; MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS],  // seq_tier in the spec. One bit: 0
                                                  // or 1.
    pub film_grain_params_present: bool,
    pub separate_uv_delta_q: bool,
}

impl Sequence {
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    pub fn new(info: &FrameInfo) -> Sequence {
        let width_bits = 32 - (info.width as u32).leading_zeros();
        let height_bits = 32 - (info.height as u32).leading_zeros();
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        assert!(width_bits <= 16);
        assert!(height_bits <= 16);

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        let profile = if info.bit_depth == 12 {
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            2
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        } else if info.chroma_sampling == ChromaSampling::Cs444 {
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            1
        } else {
            0
        };

        let mut operating_point_idc = [0 as u16; MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS];
        let mut level = [[1, 2 as usize]; MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS];
        let mut tier = [0 as usize; MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS];

        for i in 0..MAX_NUM_OPERATING_POINTS {
            operating_point_idc[i] = 0;
            level[i][0] = 1;	// minor
            level[i][1] = 2;	// major
            tier[i] = 0;
        }

        Sequence {
            profile: profile,
            num_bits_width: width_bits,
            num_bits_height: height_bits,
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            bit_depth: info.bit_depth,
            chroma_sampling: info.chroma_sampling,
            max_frame_width: info.width as u32,
            max_frame_height: info.height as u32,
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            frame_id_numbers_present_flag: false,
            frame_id_length: 0,
            delta_frame_id_length: 0,
            use_128x128_superblock: false,
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            order_hint_bits_minus_1: 5,
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            force_screen_content_tools: 0,
            force_integer_mv: 2,
            still_picture: false,
            reduced_still_picture_hdr: false,
            monochrome: false,
            enable_filter_intra: true,
            enable_intra_edge_filter: true,
            enable_interintra_compound: false,
            enable_masked_compound: false,
            enable_dual_filter: false,
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            enable_order_hint: true,
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            enable_jnt_comp: false,
            enable_ref_frame_mvs: false,
            enable_warped_motion: false,
            enable_superres: false,
            enable_cdef: true,
            enable_restoration: true,
            operating_points_cnt_minus_1: 0,
            operating_point_idc: operating_point_idc,
            display_model_info_present_flag: false,
            decoder_model_info_present_flag: false,
            level: level,
            tier: tier,
            film_grain_params_present: false,
            separate_uv_delta_q: false,
        }
    }
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    pub fn get_relative_dist(&self, a: u32, b: u32) -> i32 {
        let diff = a as i32 - b as i32;
        let m = 1 << self.order_hint_bits_minus_1;
        (diff & (m - 1)) - (diff & m)
    }
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    pub fn get_skip_mode_allowed(&self, fi: &FrameInvariants, reference_select: bool) -> bool {
      if fi.intra_only || !reference_select || !self.enable_order_hint {
        false
      } else {
        let mut forward_idx: isize = -1;
        let mut backward_idx: isize = -1;
        let mut forward_hint = 0;
        let mut backward_hint = 0;
        for i in 0..INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME {
          if let Some(ref rec) = fi.rec_buffer.frames[fi.ref_frames[i] as usize] {
            let ref_hint = rec.order_hint;
            if self.get_relative_dist(ref_hint, fi.order_hint) < 0 {
              if forward_idx < 0 || self.get_relative_dist(ref_hint, forward_hint) > 0 {
                forward_idx = i as isize;
                forward_hint = ref_hint;
              }
            } else if self.get_relative_dist(ref_hint, fi.order_hint) > 0 {
              if backward_idx < 0 || self.get_relative_dist(ref_hint, backward_hint) > 0 {
                backward_idx = i as isize;
                backward_hint = ref_hint;
              }
            }
          }
        }
        if forward_idx < 0 {
          false
        } else if backward_idx >= 0 {
          // set skip_mode_frame
          true
        } else {
          let mut second_forward_idx: isize = -1;
          let mut second_forward_hint = 0;
          for i in 0..INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME {
            if let Some(ref rec) = fi.rec_buffer.frames[fi.ref_frames[i] as usize] {
              let ref_hint = rec.order_hint;
              if self.get_relative_dist(ref_hint, forward_hint) < 0 {
                if second_forward_idx < 0 || self.get_relative_dist(ref_hint, second_forward_hint) > 0 {
                  second_forward_idx = i as isize;
                  second_forward_hint = ref_hint;
                }
              }
            }
          }
          if second_forward_idx < 0 {
            false
          } else {
            // set skip_mode_frame
            true
          }
        }
      }
    }
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}

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use std::sync::Arc;

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#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct FrameState {
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    pub input: Arc<Frame>,
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    pub input_hres: Plane, // half-resolution version of input luma
    pub input_qres: Plane, // quarter-resolution version of input luma
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    pub rec: Frame,
    pub qc: QuantizationContext,
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    pub cdfs: CDFContext,
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    pub deblock: DeblockState,
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    pub segmentation: SegmentationState,
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}

impl FrameState {
    pub fn new(fi: &FrameInvariants) -> FrameState {
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        FrameState::new_with_frame(fi, Arc::new(Frame::new(fi.padded_w, fi.padded_h)))
    }

    pub fn new_with_frame(fi: &FrameInvariants, frame: Arc<Frame>) -> FrameState {
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        FrameState {
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            input: frame,
            input_hres: Plane::new(
                fi.padded_w/2, fi.padded_h/2,
                1, 1,
                (MAX_SB_SIZE + FRAME_MARGIN) / 2, (MAX_SB_SIZE + FRAME_MARGIN) / 2
            ),
            input_qres: Plane::new(
                fi.padded_w/4, fi.padded_h/4,
                2, 2,
                (MAX_SB_SIZE + FRAME_MARGIN) / 4, (MAX_SB_SIZE + FRAME_MARGIN) / 4
            ),
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            rec: Frame::new(fi.padded_w, fi.padded_h),
            qc: Default::default(),
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            cdfs: CDFContext::new(0),
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            deblock: Default::default(),
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            segmentation: Default::default(),
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        }
    }
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    pub fn window(&self, sbo: &SuperBlockOffset) -> FrameState {
        FrameState {
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            input: Arc::new(self.input.window(sbo)),
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            input_hres: self.input_hres.window(&sbo.plane_offset(&self.input_hres.cfg)),
            input_qres: self.input_qres.window(&sbo.plane_offset(&self.input_qres.cfg)),
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            rec: self.rec.window(sbo),
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            qc: self.qc,
            cdfs: self.cdfs,
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            deblock: self.deblock,
            segmentation: self.segmentation,
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        }
    }
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}

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#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug)]
pub struct DeblockState {
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    pub levels: [u8; PLANES+1],  // Y vertical edges, Y horizontal, U, V
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    pub sharpness: u8,
    pub deltas_enabled: bool,
    pub delta_updates_enabled: bool,
    pub ref_deltas: [i8; REF_FRAMES],
    pub mode_deltas: [i8; 2],
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    pub block_deltas_enabled: bool,
    pub block_delta_shift: u8,
    pub block_delta_multi: bool,
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}

impl Default for DeblockState {
    fn default() -> Self {
        DeblockState {
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            levels: [8,8,4,4],
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            sharpness: 0,
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            deltas_enabled: false, // requires delta_q_enabled
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            delta_updates_enabled: false,
            ref_deltas: [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, -1, -1, -1],
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            mode_deltas: [0, 0],
            block_deltas_enabled: false,
            block_delta_shift: 0,
            block_delta_multi: false
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        }
    }
}

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#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug)]
pub struct SegmentationState {
    pub enabled: bool,
    pub update_data: bool,
    pub update_map: bool,
    pub preskip: bool,
    pub last_active_segid: u8,
    pub features: [[bool; SegLvl::SEG_LVL_MAX as usize]; 8],
    pub data: [[i16; SegLvl::SEG_LVL_MAX as usize]; 8],
}

impl Default for SegmentationState {
    fn default() -> Self {
        SegmentationState {
            enabled: false,
            update_data: false,
            update_map: false,
            preskip: true,
            last_active_segid: 0,
            features: [[false; SegLvl::SEG_LVL_MAX as usize]; 8],
            data: [[0; SegLvl::SEG_LVL_MAX as usize]; 8],
        }
    }
}

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// Frame Invariants are invariant inside a frame
#[allow(dead_code)]
#[derive(Debug)]
pub struct FrameInvariants {
    pub width: usize,
    pub height: usize,
    pub padded_w: usize,
    pub padded_h: usize,
    pub sb_width: usize,
    pub sb_height: usize,
    pub w_in_b: usize,
    pub h_in_b: usize,
    pub number: u64,
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    pub order_hint: u32,
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    pub show_frame: bool,
    pub showable_frame: bool,
    pub error_resilient: bool,
    pub intra_only: bool,
    pub allow_high_precision_mv: bool,
    pub frame_type: FrameType,
    pub show_existing_frame: bool,
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    pub frame_to_show_map_idx: u32,
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    pub use_reduced_tx_set: bool,
    pub reference_mode: ReferenceMode,
    pub use_prev_frame_mvs: bool,
    pub min_partition_size: BlockSize,
    pub globalmv_transformation_type: [GlobalMVMode; ALTREF_FRAME + 1],
    pub num_tg: usize,
    pub large_scale_tile: bool,
    pub disable_cdf_update: bool,
    pub allow_screen_content_tools: u32,
    pub force_integer_mv: u32,
    pub primary_ref_frame: u32,
    pub refresh_frame_flags: u32,  // a bitmask that specifies which
    // reference frame slots will be updated with the current frame
    // after it is decoded.
    pub allow_intrabc: bool,
    pub use_ref_frame_mvs: bool,
    pub is_filter_switchable: bool,
    pub is_motion_mode_switchable: bool,
    pub disable_frame_end_update_cdf: bool,
    pub allow_warped_motion: bool,
    pub cdef_damping: u8,
    pub cdef_bits: u8,
    pub cdef_y_strengths: [u8; 8],
    pub cdef_uv_strengths: [u8; 8],
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    pub lrf_types: [u8; PLANES],
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    pub delta_q_present: bool,
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    pub config: EncoderConfig,
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    pub ref_frames: [u8; INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME],
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    pub ref_frame_sign_bias: [bool; INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME],
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    pub rec_buffer: ReferenceFramesSet,
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    pub base_q_idx: u8,
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    pub me_range_scale: u8,
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    pub use_tx_domain_distortion: bool,
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}

impl FrameInvariants {
    pub fn new(width: usize, height: usize, config: EncoderConfig) -> FrameInvariants {
        // Speed level decides the minimum partition size, i.e. higher speed --> larger min partition size,
        // with exception that SBs on right or bottom frame borders split down to BLOCK_4X4.
        // At speed = 0, RDO search is exhaustive.
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        let mut min_partition_size = config.speed_settings.min_block_size;
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        if config.tune == Tune::Psychovisual {
            if min_partition_size < BlockSize::BLOCK_8X8 {
                // TODO: Display message that min partition size is enforced to 8x8
                min_partition_size = BlockSize::BLOCK_8X8;
                println!("If tune=Psychovisual is used, min partition size is enforced to 8x8");
            }
        }
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        let use_reduced_tx_set = config.speed_settings.reduced_tx_set;
        let use_tx_domain_distortion = config.tune == Tune::Psnr && config.speed_settings.tx_domain_distortion;
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        FrameInvariants {
            width,
            height,
            padded_w: width.align_power_of_two(3),
            padded_h: height.align_power_of_two(3),
            sb_width: width.align_power_of_two_and_shift(6),
            sb_height: height.align_power_of_two_and_shift(6),
            w_in_b: 2 * width.align_power_of_two_and_shift(3), // MiCols, ((width+7)/8)<<3 >> MI_SIZE_LOG2
            h_in_b: 2 * height.align_power_of_two_and_shift(3), // MiRows, ((height+7)/8)<<3 >> MI_SIZE_LOG2
            number: 0,
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            order_hint: 0,
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            show_frame: true,
            showable_frame: true,
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            error_resilient: false,
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            intra_only: false,
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            allow_high_precision_mv: false,
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            frame_type: FrameType::KEY,
            show_existing_frame: false,
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            frame_to_show_map_idx: 0,
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            use_reduced_tx_set,
            reference_mode: ReferenceMode::SINGLE,
            use_prev_frame_mvs: false,
            min_partition_size,
            globalmv_transformation_type: [GlobalMVMode::IDENTITY; ALTREF_FRAME + 1],
            num_tg: 1,
            large_scale_tile: false,
            disable_cdf_update: false,
            allow_screen_content_tools: 0,
            force_integer_mv: 0,
            primary_ref_frame: PRIMARY_REF_NONE,
            refresh_frame_flags: 0,
            allow_intrabc: false,
            use_ref_frame_mvs: false,
            is_filter_switchable: false,
            is_motion_mode_switchable: false, // 0: only the SIMPLE motion mode will be used.
            disable_frame_end_update_cdf: false,
            allow_warped_motion: false,
            cdef_damping: 3,
            cdef_bits: 3,
            cdef_y_strengths: [0*4+0, 1*4+0, 2*4+1, 3*4+1, 5*4+2, 7*4+3, 10*4+3, 13*4+3],
            cdef_uv_strengths: [0*4+0, 1*4+0, 2*4+1, 3*4+1, 5*4+2, 7*4+3, 10*4+3, 13*4+3],
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            lrf_types: [RESTORE_NONE, RESTORE_NONE, RESTORE_NONE],
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            delta_q_present: false,
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            config,
            ref_frames: [0; INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME],
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            ref_frame_sign_bias: [false; INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME],
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            rec_buffer: ReferenceFramesSet::new(),
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            base_q_idx: config.quantizer as u8,
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            me_range_scale: 1,
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            use_tx_domain_distortion: use_tx_domain_distortion,
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        }
    }
}

impl fmt::Display for FrameInvariants{
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "Frame {} - {}", self.number, self.frame_type)
    }
}

#[allow(dead_code,non_camel_case_types)]
#[derive(Debug,PartialEq,Clone,Copy)]
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#[repr(C)]
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pub enum FrameType {
    KEY,
    INTER,
    INTRA_ONLY,
    SWITCH,
}

//const REFERENCE_MODES: usize = 3;

#[allow(dead_code,non_camel_case_types)]
#[derive(Debug,PartialEq)]
pub enum ReferenceMode {
  SINGLE = 0,
  COMPOUND = 1,
  SELECT = 2,
}

pub const ALL_REF_FRAMES_MASK: u32 = (1 << REF_FRAMES) - 1;

impl fmt::Display for FrameType{
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        match self {
            FrameType::KEY => write!(f, "Key frame"),
            FrameType::INTER => write!(f, "Inter frame"),
            FrameType::INTRA_ONLY => write!(f, "Intra only frame"),
            FrameType::SWITCH => write!(f, "Switching frame"),
        }
    }
}

pub fn write_ivf_header(output_file: &mut dyn io::Write, width: usize, height: usize, num: usize, den: usize) {
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    let mut bw = BitWriter::endian(output_file, LittleEndian);
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    bw.write_bytes(b"DKIF").unwrap();
    bw.write(16, 0).unwrap(); // version
    bw.write(16, 32).unwrap(); // version
    bw.write_bytes(b"AV01").unwrap();
    bw.write(16, width as u16).unwrap();
    bw.write(16, height as u16).unwrap();
    bw.write(32, num as u32).unwrap();
    bw.write(32, den as u32).unwrap();
    bw.write(32, 0).unwrap();
    bw.write(32, 0).unwrap();
}

pub fn write_ivf_frame(output_file: &mut dyn io::Write, pts: u64, data: &[u8]) {
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    let mut bw = BitWriter::endian(output_file, LittleEndian);
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    bw.write(32, data.len() as u32).unwrap();
    bw.write(64, pts).unwrap();
    bw.write_bytes(data).unwrap();
}

trait UncompressedHeader {
    // Start of OBU Headers
    fn write_obu_header(&mut self, obu_type: OBU_Type, obu_extension: u32)
            -> io::Result<()>;
    fn write_sequence_header_obu(&mut self, seq: &mut Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants)
            -> io::Result<()>;
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    fn write_frame_header_obu(&mut self, seq: &Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState)
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            -> io::Result<()>;
    fn write_sequence_header(&mut self, seq: &mut Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants)
                                    -> io::Result<()>;
    fn write_color_config(&mut self, seq: &mut Sequence) -> io::Result<()>;
    // End of OBU Headers

    fn write_frame_size(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants) -> io::Result<()>;
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    fn write_deblock_filter_a(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()>;
    fn write_deblock_filter_b(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()>;
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    fn write_frame_cdef(&mut self, seq: &Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants) -> io::Result<()>;
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    fn write_frame_lrf(&mut self, seq: &Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants) -> io::Result<()>;
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    fn write_segment_data(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()>;
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}
#[allow(unused)]
const OP_POINTS_IDC_BITS:usize = 12;
#[allow(unused)]
const LEVEL_MAJOR_MIN:usize = 2;
#[allow(unused)]
const LEVEL_MAJOR_BITS:usize = 3;
#[allow(unused)]
const LEVEL_MINOR_BITS:usize = 2;
#[allow(unused)]
const LEVEL_BITS:usize = LEVEL_MAJOR_BITS + LEVEL_MINOR_BITS;
const FRAME_ID_LENGTH: usize = 15;
const DELTA_FRAME_ID_LENGTH: usize = 14;

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impl<W: io::Write> UncompressedHeader for BitWriter<W, BigEndian> {
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    // Start of OBU Headers
    // Write OBU Header syntax
    fn write_obu_header(&mut self, obu_type: OBU_Type, obu_extension: u32)
            -> io::Result<()>{
        self.write_bit(false)?; // forbidden bit.
        self.write(4, obu_type as u32)?;
        self.write_bit(obu_extension != 0)?;
        self.write_bit(true)?; // obu_has_payload_length_field
        self.write_bit(false)?; // reserved

        if obu_extension != 0 {
            assert!(false);
            //self.write(8, obu_extension & 0xFF)?; size += 8;
        }

        Ok(())
    }

    fn write_sequence_header_obu(&mut self, seq: &mut Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants)
        -> io::Result<()> {
        self.write(3, seq.profile)?; // profile, 3 bits
        self.write(1, 0)?; // still_picture
        self.write(1, 0)?; // reduced_still_picture
        self.write_bit(false)?; // display model present
        self.write_bit(false)?; // no timing info present
        self.write(5, 0)?; // one operating point
        self.write(12,0)?; // idc
        self.write(5, 31)?; // level
        self.write(1, 0)?; // tier
        if seq.reduced_still_picture_hdr {
            assert!(false);
        }

        self.write_sequence_header(seq, fi)?;

        self.write_color_config(seq)?;

        self.write_bit(seq.film_grain_params_present)?;

        self.write_bit(true)?; // add_trailing_bits

        Ok(())
    }

    fn write_sequence_header(&mut self, seq: &mut Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants)
        -> io::Result<()> {
        self.write_frame_size(fi)?;

        if !seq.reduced_still_picture_hdr {
            seq.frame_id_numbers_present_flag = false;
            seq.frame_id_length = FRAME_ID_LENGTH as u32;
            seq.delta_frame_id_length = DELTA_FRAME_ID_LENGTH as u32;

            self.write_bit(seq.frame_id_numbers_present_flag)?;

            if seq.frame_id_numbers_present_flag {
              // We must always have delta_frame_id_length < frame_id_length,
              // in order for a frame to be referenced with a unique delta.
              // Avoid wasting bits by using a coding that enforces this restriction.
              self.write(4, seq.delta_frame_id_length - 2)?;
              self.write(3, seq.frame_id_length - seq.delta_frame_id_length - 1)?;
            }
        }

        self.write_bit(seq.use_128x128_superblock)?;
        self.write_bit(seq.enable_filter_intra)?;
        self.write_bit(seq.enable_intra_edge_filter)?;

        if !seq.reduced_still_picture_hdr {
            self.write_bit(seq.enable_interintra_compound)?;
            self.write_bit(seq.enable_masked_compound)?;
            self.write_bit(seq.enable_warped_motion)?;
            self.write_bit(seq.enable_dual_filter)?;
            self.write_bit(seq.enable_order_hint)?;

            if seq.enable_order_hint {
              self.write_bit(seq.enable_jnt_comp)?;
              self.write_bit(seq.enable_ref_frame_mvs)?;
            }
            if seq.force_screen_content_tools == 2 {
              self.write_bit(true)?;
            } else {
              self.write_bit(false)?;
              self.write_bit(seq.force_screen_content_tools != 0)?;
            }
            if seq.force_screen_content_tools > 0 {
              if seq.force_integer_mv == 2 {
                self.write_bit(true)?;
              } else {
                self.write_bit(false)?;
                self.write_bit(seq.force_integer_mv != 0)?;
              }
            } else {
              assert!(seq.force_integer_mv == 2);
            }
            if seq.enable_order_hint {
              self.write(3, seq.order_hint_bits_minus_1)?;
            }
        }

        self.write_bit(seq.enable_superres)?;
        self.write_bit(seq.enable_cdef)?;
        self.write_bit(seq.enable_restoration)?;

        Ok(())
    }

    fn write_color_config(&mut self, seq: &mut Sequence) -> io::Result<()> {
        let high_bd = seq.bit_depth > 8;

        self.write_bit(high_bd)?; // high bit depth

        if seq.bit_depth == 12 {
            self.write_bit(true)?; // 12-bit
        }

        if seq.profile != 1 {
            self.write_bit(seq.monochrome)?; // monochrome?
        } else {
            unimplemented!(); // 4:4:4 sampling at 8 or 10 bits
        }

        self.write_bit(false)?; // No color description present

        if seq.monochrome {
            assert!(false);
        }

        self.write_bit(false)?; // color range

        let subsampling_x = seq.chroma_sampling != ChromaSampling::Cs444;
        let subsampling_y = seq.chroma_sampling == ChromaSampling::Cs420;

        if seq.bit_depth == 12 {
            self.write_bit(subsampling_x)?;

            if subsampling_x {
                self.write_bit(subsampling_y)?;
            }
        }

        if !subsampling_y {
            unimplemented!(); // 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 sampling
        }

        self.write(2, 0)?; // chroma_sample_position == CSP_UNKNOWN

        self.write_bit(false)?; // separate uv delta q

        Ok(())
    }

#[allow(unused)]
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    fn write_frame_header_obu(&mut self, seq: &Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState)
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        -> io::Result<()> {
      if seq.reduced_still_picture_hdr {
        assert!(fi.show_existing_frame);
        assert!(fi.frame_type == FrameType::KEY);
        assert!(fi.show_frame);
      } else {
        if fi.show_existing_frame {
          self.write_bit(true)?; // show_existing_frame=1
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          self.write(3, fi.frame_to_show_map_idx)?;
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          //TODO:
          /* temporal_point_info();
            if seq.decoder_model_info_present_flag &&
              timing_info.equal_picture_interval == 0 {
            // write frame_presentation_delay;
          }
          if seq.frame_id_numbers_present_flag {
            // write display_frame_id;
          }*/

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          self.write_bit(true)?; // trailing bit
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          self.byte_align()?;
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          return Ok(());
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        }
        self.write_bit(false)?; // show_existing_frame=0
        self.write(2, fi.frame_type as u32)?;
        self.write_bit(fi.show_frame)?; // show frame

        if fi.show_frame {
          //TODO:
          /* temporal_point_info();
              if seq.decoder_model_info_present_flag &&
              timing_info.equal_picture_interval == 0 {
            // write frame_presentation_delay;*/
        } else {
          self.write_bit(fi.showable_frame)?;
        }

        if fi.frame_type == FrameType::SWITCH {
          assert!(fi.error_resilient);
        } else {
          if !(fi.frame_type == FrameType::KEY && fi.show_frame) {
            self.write_bit(fi.error_resilient)?; // error resilient
          }
        }
      }

      self.write_bit(fi.disable_cdf_update)?;

      if seq.force_screen_content_tools == 2 {
        self.write_bit(fi.allow_screen_content_tools != 0)?;
      } else {
        assert!(fi.allow_screen_content_tools ==
                seq.force_screen_content_tools);
      }

      if fi.allow_screen_content_tools == 2 {
        if seq.force_integer_mv == 2 {
          self.write_bit(fi.force_integer_mv != 0)?;
        } else {
          assert!(fi.force_integer_mv == seq.force_integer_mv);
        }
      } else {
        assert!(fi.allow_screen_content_tools ==
                seq.force_screen_content_tools);
      }

      if seq.frame_id_numbers_present_flag {
        assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
        //TODO:
        //let frame_id_len = seq.frame_id_length;
        //self.write(frame_id_len, fi.current_frame_id);
      }

      let mut frame_size_override_flag = false;
      if fi.frame_type == FrameType::SWITCH {
        frame_size_override_flag = true;
      } else if seq.reduced_still_picture_hdr {
        frame_size_override_flag = false;
      } else {
        self.write_bit(frame_size_override_flag)?; // frame size overhead flag
      }

      if seq.enable_order_hint {
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        let n = seq.order_hint_bits_minus_1 + 1;
        let mask = (1 << n) - 1;
        self.write(n, fi.order_hint & mask)?;
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      }
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      if fi.error_resilient || fi.intra_only {
      } else {
        self.write(PRIMARY_REF_BITS, fi.primary_ref_frame)?;
      }

      if seq.decoder_model_info_present_flag {
        assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
      }

      if fi.frame_type == FrameType::KEY {
        if !fi.show_frame {  // unshown keyframe (forward keyframe)
          assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
          self.write(REF_FRAMES as u32, fi.refresh_frame_flags)?;
        } else {
          assert!(fi.refresh_frame_flags == ALL_REF_FRAMES_MASK);
        }
      } else { // Inter frame info goes here
        if fi.intra_only {
          assert!(fi.refresh_frame_flags != ALL_REF_FRAMES_MASK);
          self.write(REF_FRAMES as u32, fi.refresh_frame_flags)?;
        } else {
          // TODO: This should be set once inter mode is used
          self.write(REF_FRAMES as u32, fi.refresh_frame_flags)?;
        }

      };

      if (!fi.intra_only || fi.refresh_frame_flags != ALL_REF_FRAMES_MASK) {
        // Write all ref frame order hints if error_resilient_mode == 1
        if (fi.error_resilient && seq.enable_order_hint) {
          assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
          //for _ in 0..REF_FRAMES {
          //  self.write(order_hint_bits_minus_1,ref_order_hint[i])?; // order_hint
          //}
        }
      }

      // if KEY or INTRA_ONLY frame
      // FIXME: Not sure whether putting frame/render size here is good idea
      if fi.intra_only {
        if frame_size_override_flag {
          assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
        }
        if seq.enable_superres {
          assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
        }
        self.write_bit(false)?; // render_and_frame_size_different
        //if render_and_frame_size_different { }
        if fi.allow_screen_content_tools != 0 && true /* UpscaledWidth == FrameWidth */ {
          self.write_bit(fi.allow_intrabc)?;
        }
      }

      let frame_refs_short_signaling = false;
      if fi.frame_type == FrameType::KEY {
        // Done by above
      } else {
        if fi.intra_only {
          // Done by above
        } else {
          if seq.enable_order_hint {
            self.write_bit(frame_refs_short_signaling)?;
            if frame_refs_short_signaling {
              assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
            }
          }

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          for i in 0..INTER_REFS_PER_FRAME {
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            if !frame_refs_short_signaling {
              self.write(REF_FRAMES_LOG2 as u32, fi.ref_frames[i] as u8)?;
            }
            if seq.frame_id_numbers_present_flag {
              assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
            }
          }
          if fi.error_resilient && frame_size_override_flag {
            assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
          } else {
            if frame_size_override_flag {
               assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
            }
            if seq.enable_superres {
              assert!(false); // Not supported by rav1e yet!
            }
            self.write_bit(false)?; // render_and_frame_size_different
          }
          if fi.force_integer_mv != 0 {
          } else {
            self.write_bit(fi.allow_high_precision_mv);
          }
          self.write_bit(fi.is_filter_switchable)?;
          self.write_bit(fi.is_motion_mode_switchable)?;
          self.write(2,0)?; // EIGHTTAP_REGULAR
          if fi.error_resilient || !seq.enable_ref_frame_mvs {
          } else {
            self.write_bit(fi.use_ref_frame_mvs)?;
          }
        }
      }

      if !seq.reduced_still_picture_hdr && !fi.disable_cdf_update {
        self.write_bit(fi.disable_frame_end_update_cdf)?;
      }

      // tile
      self.write_bit(true)?; // uniform_tile_spacing_flag
      if fi.width > 64 {
        // TODO: if tile_cols > 1, write more increment_tile_cols_log2 bits
        self.write_bit(false)?; // tile cols
      }
      if fi.height > 64 {
        // TODO: if tile_rows > 1, write increment_tile_rows_log2 bits
        self.write_bit(false)?; // tile rows
      }
      // TODO: if tile_cols * tile_rows > 1 {
      // write context_update_tile_id and tile_size_bytes_minus_1 }

      // quantization
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      assert!(fi.base_q_idx > 0);
      self.write(8, fi.base_q_idx)?; // base_q_idx
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      self.write_bit(false)?; // y dc delta q
      self.write_bit(false)?; // uv dc delta q
      self.write_bit(false)?; // uv ac delta q
      self.write_bit(false)?; // no qm

      // segmentation
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      self.write_segment_data(fi, fs)?;
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      // delta_q
      self.write_bit(false)?; // delta_q_present_flag: no delta q

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      // delta_lf_params in the spec
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      self.write_deblock_filter_a(fi, fs)?;
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      // code for features not yet implemented....

      // loop_filter_params in the spec
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      self.write_deblock_filter_b(fi, fs)?;
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      // cdef
      self.write_frame_cdef(seq, fi)?;
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      // loop restoration
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      self.write_frame_lrf(seq,fi)?;

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      self.write_bit(false)?; // tx mode == TX_MODE_SELECT ?

      let mut reference_select = false;
      if !fi.intra_only {
        reference_select = fi.reference_mode != ReferenceMode::SINGLE;
        self.write_bit(reference_select)?;
      }

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      let skip_mode_allowed = seq.get_skip_mode_allowed(fi, reference_select);
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      if skip_mode_allowed {
        self.write_bit(false)?; // skip_mode_present
      }

      if fi.intra_only || fi.error_resilient || !seq.enable_warped_motion {
      } else {
        self.write_bit(fi.allow_warped_motion)?; // allow_warped_motion
      }

      self.write_bit(fi.use_reduced_tx_set)?; // reduced tx

      // global motion
      if !fi.intra_only {
          for i in LAST_FRAME..ALTREF_FRAME+1 {
              let mode = fi.globalmv_transformation_type[i];
              self.write_bit(mode != GlobalMVMode::IDENTITY)?;
              if mode != GlobalMVMode::IDENTITY {
                  self.write_bit(mode == GlobalMVMode::ROTZOOM)?;
                  if mode != GlobalMVMode::ROTZOOM {
                      self.write_bit(mode == GlobalMVMode::TRANSLATION)?;
                  }
              }
              match mode {
                  GlobalMVMode::IDENTITY => { /* Nothing to do */ }
                  GlobalMVMode::TRANSLATION => {
                      let mv_x = 0;
                      let mv_x_ref = 0;
                      let mv_y = 0;
                      let mv_y_ref = 0;
                      let bits = 12 - 6 + 3 - !fi.allow_high_precision_mv as u8;
                      let bits_diff = 12 - 3 + fi.allow_high_precision_mv as u8;
                      BCodeWriter::write_s_refsubexpfin(self, (1 << bits) + 1,
                                                        3, mv_x_ref >> bits_diff,
                                                        mv_x >> bits_diff)?;
                      BCodeWriter::write_s_refsubexpfin(self, (1 << bits) + 1,
                                                        3, mv_y_ref >> bits_diff,
                                                        mv_y >> bits_diff)?;
                  }
                  GlobalMVMode::ROTZOOM => unimplemented!(),
                  GlobalMVMode::AFFINE => unimplemented!(),
              };
          }
      }

      if seq.film_grain_params_present && fi.show_frame {
          unimplemented!();
      }

      if fi.large_scale_tile {
          unimplemented!();
      }
      self.write_bit(true)?; // trailing bit
      self.byte_align()?;

      Ok(())
    }
    // End of OBU Headers

    fn write_frame_size(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants) -> io::Result<()> {
        // width_bits and height_bits will have to be moved to the sequence header OBU
        // when we add support for it.
        let width_bits = 32 - (fi.width as u32).leading_zeros();
        let height_bits = 32 - (fi.height as u32).leading_zeros();
        assert!(width_bits <= 16);
        assert!(height_bits <= 16);
        self.write(4, width_bits - 1)?;
        self.write(4, height_bits - 1)?;
        self.write(width_bits, (fi.width - 1) as u16)?;
        self.write(height_bits, (fi.height - 1) as u16)?;
        Ok(())
    }

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    fn write_deblock_filter_a(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()> {
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        if fi.delta_q_present {
            if !fi.allow_intrabc {
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                self.write_bit(fs.deblock.block_deltas_enabled)?;
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            }
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            if fs.deblock.block_deltas_enabled {
                self.write(2,fs.deblock.block_delta_shift)?;
                self.write_bit(fs.deblock.block_delta_multi)?;
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            }
        }
        Ok(())
    }

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    fn write_deblock_filter_b(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()> {
        assert!(fs.deblock.levels[0] < 64);
        self.write(6, fs.deblock.levels[0])?; // loop deblocking filter level 0
        assert!(fs.deblock.levels[1] < 64);
        self.write(6, fs.deblock.levels[1])?; // loop deblocking filter level 1
        if PLANES > 1 && (fs.deblock.levels[0] > 0 || fs.deblock.levels[1] > 0) {
            assert!(fs.deblock.levels[2] < 64);
            self.write(6, fs.deblock.levels[2])?; // loop deblocking filter level 2
            assert!(fs.deblock.levels[3] < 64);
            self.write(6, fs.deblock.levels[3])?; // loop deblocking filter level 3
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        }
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        self.write(3,fs.deblock.sharpness)?; // deblocking filter sharpness
        self.write_bit(fs.deblock.deltas_enabled)?; // loop deblocking filter deltas enabled
        if fs.deblock.deltas_enabled {
            self.write_bit(fs.deblock.delta_updates_enabled)?; // deltas updates enabled
            if fs.deblock.delta_updates_enabled {
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                // conditionally write ref delta updates
                let prev_ref_deltas = if fi.primary_ref_frame == PRIMARY_REF_NONE {
                    [1, 0, 0, 0, 0, -1, -1, -1]
                } else {
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                    fi.rec_buffer.deblock[fi.ref_frames[fi.primary_ref_frame as usize] as usize].ref_deltas
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                };
                for i in 0..REF_FRAMES {
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                    let update = fs.deblock.ref_deltas[i] != prev_ref_deltas[i];
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                    self.write_bit(update)?;
                    if update {
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                        self.write_signed(7,fs.deblock.ref_deltas[i])?;
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                    }
                }
                // conditionally write mode delta updates
                let prev_mode_deltas = if fi.primary_ref_frame == PRIMARY_REF_NONE {
                    [0, 0]
                } else {
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                    fi.rec_buffer.deblock[fi.ref_frames[fi.primary_ref_frame as usize] as usize].mode_deltas
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                };
                for i in 0..2 {
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                    let update = fs.deblock.mode_deltas[i] != prev_mode_deltas[i];
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                    self.write_bit(update)?;
                    if update {
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                        self.write_signed(7,fs.deblock.mode_deltas[i])?;
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                    }
                }
            }
        }
        Ok(())
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    }

    fn write_frame_cdef(&mut self, seq: &Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants) -> io::Result<()> {
        if seq.enable_cdef {
            assert!(fi.cdef_damping >= 3);
            assert!(fi.cdef_damping <= 6);
            self.write(2, fi.cdef_damping - 3)?;
            assert!(fi.cdef_bits < 4);
            self.write(2,fi.cdef_bits)?; // cdef bits
            for i in 0..(1<<fi.cdef_bits) {
                assert!(fi.cdef_y_strengths[i]<64);
                assert!(fi.cdef_uv_strengths[i]<64);
                self.write(6,fi.cdef_y_strengths[i])?; // cdef y strength
                self.write(6,fi.cdef_uv_strengths[i])?; // cdef uv strength
            }
        }
        Ok(())
    }
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    fn write_frame_lrf(&mut self, seq: &Sequence, fi: &FrameInvariants) -> io::Result<()> {
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      if seq.enable_restoration && !fi.allow_intrabc { // && !self.lossless
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        let mut use_lrf = false;
        let mut use_chroma_lrf = false;
        for i in 0..PLANES {
          self.write(2,fi.lrf_types[i])?; // filter type by plane
          if fi.lrf_types[i] != RESTORE_NONE {
            use_lrf = true;
            if i > 0 { use_chroma_lrf = true; }
          }
        }
        if use_lrf {
          // At present, we're locked to a restoration unit size equal to superblock size.
          // Signal as such.
          if seq.use_128x128_superblock {
            self.write(1,0)?; // do not double the restoration unit from 128x128
          } else {
            self.write(1,0)?; // do not double the restoration unit from 64x64
          }

          if use_chroma_lrf {
            // until we're able to support restoration units larger than
            // the chroma superblock size, we can't perform LRF for
            // anything other than 4:4:4 and 4:2:0
            assert!(seq.chroma_sampling == ChromaSampling::Cs444 ||
                   seq.chroma_sampling == ChromaSampling::Cs420);
            if seq.chroma_sampling == ChromaSampling::Cs420 {
              self.write(1,1)?; // halve the chroma restoration unit in both directions
            }
          }
        }
      }
      Ok(())
    }
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    fn write_segment_data(&mut self, fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()> {
        self.write_bit(fs.segmentation.enabled)?;
        if fs.segmentation.enabled {
            if fi.primary_ref_frame == PRIMARY_REF_NONE {
                assert_eq!(fs.segmentation.update_map, true);
                assert_eq!(fs.segmentation.update_data, true);
            } else {
                self.write_bit(fs.segmentation.update_map)?;
                if fs.segmentation.update_map {
                    self.write_bit(false)?; /* Without using temporal prediction */
                }
                self.write_bit(fs.segmentation.update_data)?;
            }
            if fs.segmentation.update_data {
                for i in 0..8 {
                    for j in 0..SegLvl::SEG_LVL_MAX as usize {
                        self.write_bit(fs.segmentation.features[i][j])?;
                        if fs.segmentation.features[i][j] {
                            let bits = seg_feature_bits[j];
                            let data = fs.segmentation.data[i][j];
                            if seg_feature_is_signed[j] {
                                self.write_signed(bits + 1, data)?;
                            } else {
                                self.write(bits, data)?;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        Ok(())
    }
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}

#[allow(non_camel_case_types)]
pub enum OBU_Type {
  OBU_SEQUENCE_HEADER = 1,
  OBU_TEMPORAL_DELIMITER = 2,
  OBU_FRAME_HEADER = 3,
  OBU_TILE_GROUP = 4,
  OBU_METADATA = 5,
  OBU_FRAME = 6,
  OBU_REDUNDANT_FRAME_HEADER = 7,
  OBU_TILE_LIST = 8,
  OBU_PADDING = 15,
}

// NOTE from libaom:
// Disallow values larger than 32-bits to ensure consistent behavior on 32 and
// 64 bit targets: value is typically used to determine buffer allocation size
// when decoded.
fn aom_uleb_size_in_bytes(mut value: u64) -> usize {
  let mut size = 0;
  loop {
    size += 1;
    value = value >> 7;
    if value == 0 { break; }
  }
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  size
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}

fn aom_uleb_encode(mut value: u64, coded_value: &mut [u8]) -> usize {
  let leb_size = aom_uleb_size_in_bytes(value);

  for i in 0..leb_size {
    let mut byte = (value & 0x7f) as u8;
    value >>= 7;
    if value != 0 { byte |= 0x80 };  // Signal that more bytes follow.
    coded_value[i] = byte;
  }

  leb_size
}

fn write_obus(packet: &mut dyn io::Write, sequence: &mut Sequence,
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                            fi: &mut FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState) -> io::Result<()> {
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    //let mut uch = BitWriter::endian(packet, BigEndian);
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    let obu_extension = 0 as u32;

    let mut buf1 = Vec::new();
    {
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        let mut bw1 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf1, BigEndian);
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      bw1.write_obu_header(OBU_Type::OBU_TEMPORAL_DELIMITER, obu_extension)?;
      bw1.write(8,0)?;	// size of payload == 0, one byte
    }
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    packet.write_all(&buf1).unwrap();
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    buf1.clear();

    // write sequence header obu if KEY_FRAME, preceded by 4-byte size
    if fi.frame_type == FrameType::KEY {
        let mut buf2 = Vec::new();
        {
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            let mut bw2 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf2, BigEndian);
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            bw2.write_sequence_header_obu(sequence, fi)?;
            bw2.byte_align()?;
        }

        {
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            let mut bw1 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf1, BigEndian);
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            bw1.write_obu_header(OBU_Type::OBU_SEQUENCE_HEADER, obu_extension)?;
        }
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        packet.write_all(&buf1).unwrap();
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        buf1.clear();

        let obu_payload_size = buf2.len() as u64;
        {
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            let mut bw1 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf1, BigEndian);
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            // uleb128()
            let mut coded_payload_length = [0 as u8; 8];
            let leb_size = aom_uleb_encode(obu_payload_size, &mut coded_payload_length);
            for i in 0..leb_size {
                bw1.write(8, coded_payload_length[i])?;
            }
        }
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        packet.write_all(&buf1).unwrap();
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        buf1.clear();

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        packet.write_all(&buf2).unwrap();
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        buf2.clear();
    }

    let mut buf2 = Vec::new();
    {
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        let mut bw2 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf2, BigEndian);
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        bw2.write_frame_header_obu(sequence, fi, fs)?;
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    }

    {
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        let mut bw1 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf1, BigEndian);
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        bw1.write_obu_header(OBU_Type::OBU_FRAME_HEADER, obu_extension)?;
    }
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    packet.write_all(&buf1).unwrap();
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    buf1.clear();

    let obu_payload_size = buf2.len() as u64;
    {
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        let mut bw1 = BitWriter::endian(&mut buf1, BigEndian);
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        // uleb128()
        let mut coded_payload_length = [0 as u8; 8];
        let leb_size = aom_uleb_encode(obu_payload_size, &mut coded_payload_length);
        for i in 0..leb_size {
            bw1.write(8, coded_payload_length[i])?;
        }
    }
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    packet.write_all(&buf1).unwrap();
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    buf1.clear();

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    packet.write_all(&buf2).unwrap();
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    buf2.clear();

    Ok(())
}

/// Write into `dst` the difference between the blocks at `src1` and `src2`
fn diff(dst: &mut [i16], src1: &PlaneSlice<'_>, src2: &PlaneSlice<'_>, width: usize, height: usize) {
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  let src1_stride = src1.plane.cfg.stride;
  let src2_stride = src2.plane.cfg.stride;

  for ((l, s1), s2) in dst.chunks_mut(width).take(height)
                        .zip(src1.as_slice().chunks(src1_stride))
                        .zip(src2.as_slice().chunks(src2_stride)) {
    for ((r, v1), v2) in l.iter_mut().zip(s1).zip(s2) {
      *r = *v1 as i16 - *v2 as i16;
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    }
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  }
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}

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fn get_qidx(fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &FrameState, cw: &ContextWriter, bo: &BlockOffset) -> u8 {
    let mut qidx = fi.base_q_idx;
    let sidx = cw.bc.at(bo).segmentation_idx as usize;
    if fs.segmentation.features[sidx][SegLvl::SEG_LVL_ALT_Q as usize] {
        let delta = fs.segmentation.data[sidx][SegLvl::SEG_LVL_ALT_Q as usize];
        qidx = clamp((qidx as i16) + delta, 0, 255) as u8;
    }
    qidx
}

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// For a transform block,
// predict, transform, quantize, write coefficients to a bitstream,
// dequantize, inverse-transform.
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pub fn encode_tx_block(
  fi: &FrameInvariants, fs: &mut FrameState, cw: &mut ContextWriter,
  w: &mut dyn Writer, p: usize, bo: &BlockOffset, mode: PredictionMode,
  tx_size: TxSize, tx_type: TxType, plane_bsize: BlockSize, po: &PlaneOffset,
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  skip: bool, bit_depth: usize, ac: &[i16], alpha: i16, for_rdo_use: bool
) -> (bool, i64) {