opusfile.c 106 KB
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/********************************************************************
 *                                                                  *
 * THIS FILE IS PART OF THE libopusfile SOFTWARE CODEC SOURCE CODE. *
 * USE, DISTRIBUTION AND REPRODUCTION OF THIS LIBRARY SOURCE IS     *
 * GOVERNED BY A BSD-STYLE SOURCE LICENSE INCLUDED WITH THIS SOURCE *
 * IN 'COPYING'. PLEASE READ THESE TERMS BEFORE DISTRIBUTING.       *
 *                                                                  *
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 * THE libopusfile SOURCE CODE IS (C) COPYRIGHT 1994-2012           *
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 * by the Xiph.Org Foundation and contributors http://www.xiph.org/ *
 *                                                                  *
 ********************************************************************

 function: stdio-based convenience library for opening/seeking/decoding
 last mod: $Id: vorbisfile.c 17573 2010-10-27 14:53:59Z xiphmont $

 ********************************************************************/
#include "internal.h"
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <math.h>

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#include "opusfile.h"
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/*This implementation is largely based off of libvorbisfile.
  All of the Ogg bits work roughly the same, though I have made some
   "improvements" that have not been folded back there, yet.*/

/*A 'chained bitstream' is an Ogg Opus bitstream that contains more than one
   logical bitstream arranged end to end (the only form of Ogg multiplexing
   supported by this library.
  Grouping (parallel multiplexing) is not supported, except to the extent that
   if there are multiple logical Ogg streams in a single link of the chain, we
   will ignore all but the first Opus stream we find.*/

/*An Ogg Opus file can be played beginning to end (streamed) without worrying
   ahead of time about chaining (see opusdec from the opus-tools package).
  If we have the whole file, however, and want random access
   (seeking/scrubbing) or desire to know the total length/time of a file, we
   need to account for the possibility of chaining.*/

/*We can handle things a number of ways.
  We can determine the entire bitstream structure right off the bat, or find
   pieces on demand.
  This library determines and caches structure for the entire bitstream, but
   builds a virtual decoder on the fly when moving between links in the chain.*/

/*There are also different ways to implement seeking.
  Enough information exists in an Ogg bitstream to seek to sample-granularity
   positions in the output.
  Or, one can seek by picking some portion of the stream roughly in the desired
   area if we only want coarse navigation through the stream.
  We implement and expose both strategies.*/

/*The maximum number of bytes in a page (including the page headers).*/
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#define OP_PAGE_SIZE_MAX  (65307)
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/*The default amount to seek backwards per step when trying to find the
   previous page.
  This must be at least as large as the maximum size of a page.*/
#define OP_CHUNK_SIZE     (65536)
/*The maximum amount to seek backwards per step when trying to find the
   previous page.*/
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#define OP_CHUNK_SIZE_MAX (1024*(opus_int32)1024)
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/*A smaller read size is needed for low-rate streaming.*/
#define OP_READ_SIZE      (2048)

int op_test(OpusHead *_head,
 const unsigned char *_initial_data,size_t _initial_bytes){
  ogg_sync_state  oy;
  char           *data;
  int             err;
  /*The first page of a normal Opus file will be at most 57 bytes (27 Ogg
     page header bytes + 1 lacing value + 21 Opus header bytes + 8 channel
     mapping bytes).
    It will be at least 47 bytes (27 Ogg page header bytes + 1 lacing value +
     19 Opus header bytes using channel mapping family 0).
    If we don't have at least that much data, give up now.*/
  if(_initial_bytes<47)return OP_FALSE;
  /*Only proceed if we start with the magic OggS string.
    This is to prevent us spending a lot of time allocating memory and looking
     for Ogg pages in non-Ogg files.*/
  if(memcmp(_initial_data,"OggS",4)!=0)return OP_ENOTFORMAT;
  ogg_sync_init(&oy);
  data=ogg_sync_buffer(&oy,_initial_bytes);
  if(data!=NULL){
    ogg_stream_state os;
    ogg_page         og;
    int              ret;
    memcpy(data,_initial_data,_initial_bytes);
    ogg_sync_wrote(&oy,_initial_bytes);
    ogg_stream_init(&os,-1);
    err=OP_FALSE;
    do{
      ogg_packet op;
      ret=ogg_sync_pageout(&oy,&og);
      /*Ignore holes.*/
      if(ret<0)continue;
      /*Stop if we run out of data.*/
      if(!ret)break;
      ogg_stream_reset_serialno(&os,ogg_page_serialno(&og));
      ogg_stream_pagein(&os,&og);
      /*Only process the first packet on this page (if it's a BOS packet,
         it's required to be the only one).*/
      if(ogg_stream_packetout(&os,&op)==1){
        if(op.b_o_s){
          ret=opus_head_parse(_head,op.packet,op.bytes);
          /*If this didn't look like Opus, keep going.*/
          if(ret==OP_ENOTFORMAT)continue;
          /*Otherwise we're done, one way or another.*/
          err=ret;
        }
        /*We finished parsing the headers.
          There is no Opus to be found.*/
        else err=OP_ENOTFORMAT;
      }
    }
    while(err==OP_FALSE);
    ogg_stream_clear(&os);
  }
  else err=OP_EFAULT;
  ogg_sync_clear(&oy);
  return err;
}

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/*Many, many internal helpers.
  The intention is not to be confusing.
  Rampant duplication and monolithic function implementation (though we do have
   some large, omnibus functions still) would be harder to understand anyway.
  The high level functions are last.
  Begin grokking near the end of the file if you prefer to read things
   top-down.*/

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/*The read/seek functions track absolute position within the stream.*/

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/*Read a little more data from the file/pipe into the ogg_sync framer.
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  _nbytes: The maximum number of bytes to read.
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  Return: A positive number of bytes read on success, 0 on end-of-file, or a
           negative value on failure.*/
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static int op_get_data(OggOpusFile *_of,int _nbytes){
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  unsigned char *buffer;
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  int            nbytes;
  OP_ASSERT(_nbytes>0);
  buffer=(unsigned char *)ogg_sync_buffer(&_of->oy,_nbytes);
  nbytes=(int)(*_of->callbacks.read)(_of->source,buffer,_nbytes);
  OP_ASSERT(nbytes<=_nbytes);
  if(OP_LIKELY(nbytes>0))ogg_sync_wrote(&_of->oy,nbytes);
  return nbytes;
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}

/*Save a tiny smidge of verbosity to make the code more readable.*/
static int op_seek_helper(OggOpusFile *_of,opus_int64 _offset){
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  if(_offset==_of->offset)return 0;
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  if(_of->callbacks.seek==NULL||
   (*_of->callbacks.seek)(_of->source,_offset,SEEK_SET)){
    return OP_EREAD;
  }
  _of->offset=_offset;
  ogg_sync_reset(&_of->oy);
  return 0;
}

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/*Get the current position indicator of the underlying source.
  This should be the same as the value reported by tell().*/
static opus_int64 op_position(OggOpusFile *_of){
  /*The current position indicator is _not_ simply offset.
    We may also have unprocessed, buffered data in the sync state.*/
  return _of->offset+_of->oy.fill-_of->oy.returned;
}
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/*From the head of the stream, get the next page.
  _boundary specifies if the function is allowed to fetch more data from the
   stream (and how much) or only use internally buffered data.
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  _boundary: -1: Unbounded search.
              0: Read no additional data.
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                 Use only cached data.
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              n: Search for the start of a new page up to file position n.
  Return: n>=0:       Found a page at absolute offset n.
          OP_FALSE:   Hit the _boundary limit.
          OP_EREAD:   An underlying read operation failed.
          OP_BADLINK: We hit end-of-file before reaching _boundary.*/
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static opus_int64 op_get_next_page(OggOpusFile *_of,ogg_page *_og,
 opus_int64 _boundary){
  for(;;){
    int more;
    if(_boundary>0&&_of->offset>=_boundary)return OP_FALSE;
    more=ogg_sync_pageseek(&_of->oy,_og);
    /*Skipped (-more) bytes.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(more<0))_of->offset-=more;
    else if(more==0){
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      int read_nbytes;
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      int ret;
      /*Send more paramedics.*/
      if(!_boundary)return OP_FALSE;
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      if(_boundary<0)read_nbytes=OP_READ_SIZE;
      else{
        opus_int64 position;
        position=op_position(_of);
        if(position>=_boundary)return OP_FALSE;
        read_nbytes=(int)OP_MIN(_boundary-position,OP_READ_SIZE);
      }
      ret=op_get_data(_of,read_nbytes);
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      if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return OP_EREAD;
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret==0)){
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        /*Only fail cleanly on EOF if we didn't have a known boundary.
          Otherwise, we should have been able to reach that boundary, and this
           is a fatal error.*/
        return OP_UNLIKELY(_boundary<0)?OP_FALSE:OP_EBADLINK;
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      }
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    }
    else{
      /*Got a page.
        Return the offset at the page beginning, advance the internal offset
         past the page end.*/
      opus_int64 page_offset;
      page_offset=_of->offset;
      _of->offset+=more;
      return page_offset;
    }
  }
}

static int op_add_serialno(ogg_page *_og,
 ogg_uint32_t **_serialnos,int *_nserialnos,int *_cserialnos){
  ogg_uint32_t *serialnos;
  int           nserialnos;
  int           cserialnos;
  ogg_uint32_t s;
  s=ogg_page_serialno(_og);
  serialnos=*_serialnos;
  nserialnos=*_nserialnos;
  cserialnos=*_cserialnos;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(nserialnos>=cserialnos)){
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(cserialnos>INT_MAX-1>>1))return OP_EFAULT;
    cserialnos=2*cserialnos+1;
    OP_ASSERT(nserialnos<cserialnos);
    serialnos=_ogg_realloc(serialnos,sizeof(*serialnos)*cserialnos);
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(serialnos==NULL))return OP_EFAULT;
  }
  serialnos[nserialnos++]=s;
  *_serialnos=serialnos;
  *_nserialnos=nserialnos;
  *_cserialnos=cserialnos;
  return 0;
}

/*Returns nonzero if found.*/
static int op_lookup_serialno(ogg_uint32_t _s,
 const ogg_uint32_t *_serialnos,int _nserialnos){
  int i;
  for(i=0;i<_nserialnos&&_serialnos[i]!=_s;i++);
  return i<_nserialnos;
}

static int op_lookup_page_serialno(ogg_page *_og,
 const ogg_uint32_t *_serialnos,int _nserialnos){
  return op_lookup_serialno(ogg_page_serialno(_og),_serialnos,_nserialnos);
}

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typedef struct OpusSeekRecord OpusSeekRecord;

/*We use this to remember the pages we found while enumerating the links of a
   chained stream.
  We only need to know the starting and ending byte offsets and the serial
   number, so we can tell if the page belonged to the current chain or not,
   and where to bisect.*/
struct OpusSeekRecord{
  /*The earliest byte we know of such that reading forward from it causes
     capture to be regained at this page.*/
  opus_int64   search_start;
  /*The offset of this page.*/
  opus_int64   offset;
  /*The size of this page.*/
  opus_int32   size;
  /*The serial number of this page.*/
  ogg_uint32_t serialno;
  /*The granule position of this page.*/
  ogg_int64_t  gp;
};

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/*Find the last page beginning before _offset with a valid granule position.
  There is no '_boundary' parameter as it will always have to read more data.
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  This is much dirtier than the above, as Ogg doesn't have any backward search
   linkage.
  This search prefers pages of the specified serial number.
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  If a page of the specified serial number is spotted during the
   seek-back-and-read-forward, it will return the info of last page of the
   matching serial number, instead of the very last page.
  If no page of the specified serial number is seen, it will return the info of
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   the last page and update *_serialno.
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  Return: 0 on success, or a negative value on failure.
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          OP_EREAD:    Failed to read more data (error or EOF).
          OP_EBADLINK: We couldn't find a page even after seeking back to the
                        start of the stream.*/
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static int op_get_prev_page_serial(OggOpusFile *_of,
 OpusSeekRecord *_sr,opus_int32 *_chunk_size,opus_int64 _offset,
 ogg_uint32_t _serialno,const ogg_uint32_t *_serialnos,int _nserialnos){
  OpusSeekRecord preferred_sr;
  ogg_page       og;
  opus_int64     begin;
  opus_int64     end;
  opus_int64     original_end;
  opus_int32     chunk_size;
  int            preferred_found;
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  original_end=end=begin=_offset;
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  preferred_found=0;
  _offset=-1;
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  chunk_size=_chunk_size==NULL?OP_CHUNK_SIZE:*_chunk_size;
  do{
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    opus_int64 search_start;
    int        ret;
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    OP_ASSERT(chunk_size>=OP_PAGE_SIZE_MAX);
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    begin=OP_MAX(begin-chunk_size,0);
    ret=op_seek_helper(_of,begin);
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
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    search_start=begin;
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    while(_of->offset<end){
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      opus_int64   llret;
      ogg_uint32_t serialno;
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      llret=op_get_next_page(_of,&og,end);
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      if(OP_UNLIKELY(llret<OP_FALSE))return (int)llret;
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      else if(llret==OP_FALSE)break;
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      serialno=ogg_page_serialno(&og);
      /*Save the information for this page.
        We're not interested in the page itself... just the serial number, byte
         offset, page size, and granule position.*/
      _sr->search_start=search_start;
      _sr->offset=_offset=llret;
      _sr->serialno=serialno;
      OP_ASSERT(_of->offset-_offset>=0);
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      OP_ASSERT(_of->offset-_offset<=OP_PAGE_SIZE_MAX);
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      _sr->size=(opus_int32)(_of->offset-_offset);
      _sr->gp=ogg_page_granulepos(&og);
      /*If this page is from the stream we're looking for, remember it.*/
      if(serialno==_serialno){
        preferred_found=1;
        *&preferred_sr=*_sr;
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      }
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      if(!op_lookup_serialno(serialno,_serialnos,_nserialnos)){
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        /*We fell off the end of the link, which means we seeked back too far
           and shouldn't have been looking in that link to begin with.
          If we found the preferred serial number, forget that we saw it.*/
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        preferred_found=0;
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      }
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      search_start=llret+1;
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    }
    /*We started from the beginning of the stream and found nothing.
      This should be impossible unless the contents of the source changed out
       from under us after we read from it.*/
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    if(OP_UNLIKELY(!begin)&&OP_UNLIKELY(_offset<0))return OP_EBADLINK;
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    /*Bump up the chunk size.
      This is mildly helpful when seeks are very expensive (http).*/
    chunk_size=OP_MIN(2*chunk_size,OP_CHUNK_SIZE_MAX);
    /*Avoid quadratic complexity if we hit an invalid patch of the file.*/
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    end=OP_MIN(begin+OP_PAGE_SIZE_MAX-1,original_end);
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  }
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  while(_offset<0);
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  if(_chunk_size!=NULL)*_chunk_size=chunk_size;
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  if(preferred_found)*_sr=*&preferred_sr;
  return 0;
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}

/*Uses the local ogg_stream storage in _of.
  This is important for non-streaming input sources.*/
static int op_fetch_headers_impl(OggOpusFile *_of,OpusHead *_head,
 OpusTags *_tags,ogg_uint32_t **_serialnos,int *_nserialnos,
 int *_cserialnos,ogg_page *_og){
  ogg_packet op;
  int        ret;
  if(_serialnos!=NULL)*_nserialnos=0;
  /*Extract the serialnos of all BOS pages plus the first set of Opus headers
     we see in the link.*/
  while(ogg_page_bos(_og)){
    if(_serialnos!=NULL){
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_lookup_page_serialno(_og,*_serialnos,*_nserialnos))){
        /*A dupe serialnumber in an initial header packet set==invalid stream.*/
        return OP_EBADHEADER;
      }
      ret=op_add_serialno(_og,_serialnos,_nserialnos,_cserialnos);
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
    }
    if(_of->ready_state<OP_STREAMSET){
      /*We don't have an Opus stream in this link yet, so begin prospective
         stream setup.
        We need a stream to get packets.*/
      ogg_stream_reset_serialno(&_of->os,ogg_page_serialno(_og));
      ogg_stream_pagein(&_of->os,_og);
      if(OP_LIKELY(ogg_stream_packetout(&_of->os,&op)>0)){
        ret=opus_head_parse(_head,op.packet,op.bytes);
        /*If it's just a stream type we don't recognize, ignore it.*/
        if(ret==OP_ENOTFORMAT)continue;
        /*Everything else is fatal.*/
        if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
        /*Found a valid Opus header.
          Continue setup.*/
        _of->ready_state=OP_STREAMSET;
      }
    }
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    /*Get the next page.
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      No need to clamp the boundary offset against _of->end, as all errors
       become OP_ENOTFORMAT.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_get_next_page(_of,_og,
     OP_ADV_OFFSET(_of->offset,OP_CHUNK_SIZE))<0)){
      return OP_ENOTFORMAT;
    }
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    /*If this page also belongs to our Opus stream, submit it and break.*/
    if(_of->ready_state==OP_STREAMSET
     &&_of->os.serialno==ogg_page_serialno(_og)){
      ogg_stream_pagein(&_of->os,_og);
      break;
    }
  }
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state!=OP_STREAMSET))return OP_ENOTFORMAT;
  /*Loop getting packets.*/
  for(;;){
    switch(ogg_stream_packetout(&_of->os,&op)){
      case 0:{
        /*Loop getting pages.*/
        for(;;){
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          /*No need to clamp the boundary offset against _of->end, as all
             errors become OP_EBADHEADER.*/
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          if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_get_next_page(_of,_og,
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           OP_ADV_OFFSET(_of->offset,OP_CHUNK_SIZE))<0)){
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            return OP_EBADHEADER;
          }
          /*If this page belongs to the correct stream, go parse it.*/
          if(_of->os.serialno==ogg_page_serialno(_og)){
            ogg_stream_pagein(&_of->os,_og);
            break;
          }
          /*If the link ends before we see the Opus comment header, abort.*/
          if(OP_UNLIKELY(ogg_page_bos(_og)))return OP_EBADHEADER;
          /*Otherwise, keep looking.*/
        }
      }break;
      /*We shouldn't get a hole in the headers!*/
      case -1:return OP_EBADHEADER;
      default:{
        /*Got a packet.
          It should be the comment header.*/
        ret=opus_tags_parse(_tags,op.packet,op.bytes);
        if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
        /*Make sure the page terminated at the end of the comment header.
          If there is another packet on the page, or part of a packet, then
           reject the stream.
          Otherwise seekable sources won't be able to seek back to the start
           properly.*/
        ret=ogg_stream_packetout(&_of->os,&op);
        if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret!=0)
         ||OP_UNLIKELY(_og->header[_og->header_len-1]==255)){
          /*If we fail, the caller assumes our tags are uninitialized.*/
          opus_tags_clear(_tags);
          return OP_EBADHEADER;
        }
        return 0;
      }
    }
  }
}

static int op_fetch_headers(OggOpusFile *_of,OpusHead *_head,
 OpusTags *_tags,ogg_uint32_t **_serialnos,int *_nserialnos,
 int *_cserialnos,ogg_page *_og){
  ogg_page og;
  int      ret;
  if(!_og){
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    /*No need to clamp the boundary offset against _of->end, as all errors
       become OP_ENOTFORMAT.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_get_next_page(_of,&og,
     OP_ADV_OFFSET(_of->offset,OP_CHUNK_SIZE))<0)){
      return OP_ENOTFORMAT;
    }
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    _og=&og;
  }
  _of->ready_state=OP_OPENED;
  ret=op_fetch_headers_impl(_of,_head,_tags,_serialnos,_nserialnos,
   _cserialnos,_og);
  /*Revert back from OP_STREAMSET to OP_OPENED on failure, to prevent
     double-free of the tags in an unseekable stream.*/
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))_of->ready_state=OP_OPENED;
  return ret;
}

/*Granule position manipulation routines.
  A granule position is defined to be an unsigned 64-bit integer, with the
   special value -1 in two's complement indicating an unset or invalid granule
   position.
  We are not guaranteed to have an unsigned 64-bit type, so we construct the
   following routines that
   a) Properly order negative numbers as larger than positive numbers, and
   b) Check for underflow or overflow past the special -1 value.
  This lets us operate on the full, valid range of granule positions in a
   consistent and safe manner.
  This full range is organized into distinct regions:
   [ -1 (invalid) ][ 0 ... OP_INT64_MAX ][ OP_INT64_MIN ... -2 ][-1 (invalid) ]

  No one should actually use granule positions so large that they're negative,
   even if they are technically valid, as very little software handles them
   correctly (including most of Xiph.Org's).
  This library also refuses to support durations so large they won't fit in a
   signed 64-bit integer (to avoid exposing this mess to the application, and
   to simplify a good deal of internal arithmetic), so the only way to use them
   successfully is if pcm_start is very large.
  This means there isn't anything you can do with negative granule positions
   that you couldn't have done with purely non-negative ones.
  The main purpose of these routines is to allow us to think very explicitly
   about the possible failure cases of all granule position manipulations.*/

/*Safely adds a small signed integer to a valid (not -1) granule position.
  The result can use the full 64-bit range of values (both positive and
   negative), but will fail on overflow (wrapping past -1; wrapping past
   OP_INT64_MAX is explicitly okay).
  [out] _dst_gp: The resulting granule position.
                 Only modified on success.
  _src_gp:       The granule position to add to.
                 This must not be -1.
  _delta:        The amount to add.
                 This is allowed to be up to 32 bits to support the maximum
                  duration of a single Ogg page (255 packets * 120 ms per
                  packet == 1,468,800 samples at 48 kHz).
  Return: 0 on success, or OP_EINVAL if the result would wrap around past -1.*/
static int op_granpos_add(ogg_int64_t *_dst_gp,ogg_int64_t _src_gp,
 opus_int32 _delta){
  /*The code below handles this case correctly, but there's no reason we
     should ever be called with these values, so make sure we aren't.*/
  OP_ASSERT(_src_gp!=-1);
  if(_delta>0){
    /*Adding this amount to the granule position would overflow its 64-bit
       range.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(_src_gp<0)&&OP_UNLIKELY(_src_gp>=-1-_delta))return OP_EINVAL;
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(_src_gp>OP_INT64_MAX-_delta)){
      /*Adding this amount to the granule position would overflow the positive
         half of its 64-bit range.
        Since signed overflow is undefined in C, do it in a way the compiler
         isn't allowed to screw up.*/
      _delta-=(opus_int32)(OP_INT64_MAX-_src_gp)+1;
      _src_gp=OP_INT64_MIN;
    }
  }
  else if(_delta<0){
    /*Subtracting this amount from the granule position would underflow its
       64-bit range.*/
    if(_src_gp>=0&&OP_UNLIKELY(_src_gp<-_delta))return OP_EINVAL;
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(_src_gp<OP_INT64_MIN-_delta)){
      /*Subtracting this amount from the granule position would underflow the
         negative half of its 64-bit range.
        Since signed underflow is undefined in C, do it in a way the compiler
         isn't allowed to screw up.*/
      _delta+=(opus_int32)(_src_gp-OP_INT64_MIN)+1;
      _src_gp=OP_INT64_MAX;
    }
  }
  *_dst_gp=_src_gp+_delta;
  return 0;
}

/*Safely computes the difference between two granule positions.
  The difference must fit in a signed 64-bit integer, or the function fails.
  It correctly handles the case where the granule position has wrapped around
   from positive values to negative ones.
  [out] _delta: The difference between the granule positions.
                Only modified on success.
  _gp_a:        The granule position to subtract from.
                This must not be -1.
  _gp_b:        The granule position to subtract.
                This must not be -1.
  Return: 0 on success, or OP_EINVAL if the result would not fit in a signed
           64-bit integer.*/
static int op_granpos_diff(ogg_int64_t *_delta,
 ogg_int64_t _gp_a,ogg_int64_t _gp_b){
  int gp_a_negative;
  int gp_b_negative;
  /*The code below handles these cases correctly, but there's no reason we
     should ever be called with these values, so make sure we aren't.*/
  OP_ASSERT(_gp_a!=-1);
  OP_ASSERT(_gp_b!=-1);
  gp_a_negative=OP_UNLIKELY(_gp_a<0);
  gp_b_negative=OP_UNLIKELY(_gp_b<0);
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(gp_a_negative^gp_b_negative)){
    ogg_int64_t da;
    ogg_int64_t db;
    if(gp_a_negative){
      /*_gp_a has wrapped to a negative value but _gp_b hasn't: the difference
         should be positive.*/
      /*Step 1: Handle wrapping.*/
      /*_gp_a < 0 => da < 0.*/
      da=(OP_INT64_MIN-_gp_a)-1;
      /*_gp_b >= 0  => db >= 0.*/
      db=OP_INT64_MAX-_gp_b;
      /*Step 2: Check for overflow.*/
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(OP_INT64_MAX+da<db))return OP_EINVAL;
      *_delta=db-da;
    }
    else{
      /*_gp_b has wrapped to a negative value but _gp_a hasn't: the difference
         should be negative.*/
      /*Step 1: Handle wrapping.*/
      /*_gp_a >= 0 => da <= 0*/
      da=_gp_a+OP_INT64_MIN;
      /*_gp_b < 0 => db <= 0*/
      db=OP_INT64_MIN-_gp_b;
      /*Step 2: Check for overflow.*/
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(da<OP_INT64_MIN-db))return OP_EINVAL;
      *_delta=da+db;
    }
  }
  else *_delta=_gp_a-_gp_b;
  return 0;
}

static int op_granpos_cmp(ogg_int64_t _gp_a,ogg_int64_t _gp_b){
  /*The invalid granule position -1 should behave like NaN: neither greater
     than nor less than any other granule position, nor equal to any other
     granule position, including itself.
    However, that means there isn't anything we could sensibly return from this
     function for it.*/
  OP_ASSERT(_gp_a!=-1);
  OP_ASSERT(_gp_b!=-1);
  /*Handle the wrapping cases.*/
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_gp_a<0)){
    if(_gp_b>=0)return 1;
    /*Else fall through.*/
  }
  else if(OP_UNLIKELY(_gp_b<0))return -1;
  /*No wrapping case.*/
  return (_gp_a>_gp_b)-(_gp_b>_gp_a);
}

/*Returns the duration of the packet (in samples at 48 kHz), or a negative
   value on error.*/
static int op_get_packet_duration(const unsigned char *_data,int _len){
  int nframes;
  int frame_size;
  int nsamples;
  nframes=opus_packet_get_nb_frames(_data,_len);
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(nframes<0))return OP_EBADPACKET;
  frame_size=opus_packet_get_samples_per_frame(_data,48000);
  nsamples=nframes*frame_size;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(nsamples>120*48))return OP_EBADPACKET;
  return nsamples;
}

/*This function more properly belongs in info.c, but we define it here to allow
   the static granule position manipulation functions to remain static.*/
ogg_int64_t opus_granule_sample(const OpusHead *_head,ogg_int64_t _gp){
  opus_int32 pre_skip;
  pre_skip=_head->pre_skip;
  if(_gp!=-1&&op_granpos_add(&_gp,_gp,-pre_skip))_gp=-1;
  return _gp;
}

/*Grab all the packets currently in the stream state, and compute their
   durations.
  _of->op_count is set to the number of packets collected.
  [out] _durations: Returns the durations of the individual packets.
  Return: The total duration of all packets, or OP_HOLE if there was a hole.*/
static opus_int32 op_collect_audio_packets(OggOpusFile *_of,
 int _durations[255]){
  opus_int32 total_duration;
  int        op_count;
  /*Count the durations of all packets in the page.*/
  op_count=0;
  total_duration=0;
  for(;;){
    int ret;
    /*Unless libogg is broken, we can't get more than 255 packets from a
       single page.*/
    OP_ASSERT(op_count<255);
    /*This takes advantage of undocumented libogg behavior that returned
       ogg_packet buffers are valid at least until the next page is
       submitted.
      Relying on this is not too terrible, as _none_ of the Ogg memory
       ownership/lifetime rules are well-documented.
      But I can read its code and know this will work.*/
    ret=ogg_stream_packetout(&_of->os,_of->op+op_count);
    if(!ret)break;
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0)){
      /*We shouldn't get holes in the middle of pages.*/
      OP_ASSERT(op_count==0);
      return OP_HOLE;
    }
    _durations[op_count]=op_get_packet_duration(_of->op[op_count].packet,
     _of->op[op_count].bytes);
    if(OP_LIKELY(_durations[op_count]>0)){
      /*With at most 255 packets on a page, this can't overflow.*/
      total_duration+=_durations[op_count++];
    }
    /*Ignore packets with an invalid TOC sequence.*/
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    else if(op_count>0){
      /*But save the granule position, if there was one.*/
      _of->op[op_count-1].granulepos=_of->op[op_count].granulepos;
    }
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  }
  _of->op_pos=0;
  _of->op_count=op_count;
  return total_duration;
}

/*Starting from current cursor position, get the initial PCM offset of the next
   page.
  This also validates the granule position on the first page with a completed
   audio data packet, as required by the spec.
  If this link is completely empty (no pages with completed packets), then this
   function sets pcm_start=pcm_end=0 and returns the BOS page of the next link
   (if any).
  In the seekable case, we initialize pcm_end=-1 before calling this function,
   so that later we can detect that the link was empty before calling
   op_find_final_pcm_offset().
  [inout] _link: The link for which to find pcm_start.
  [out] _og:     Returns the BOS page of the next link if this link was empty.
                 In the unseekable case, we can then feed this to
                  op_fetch_headers() to start the next link.
                 The caller may pass NULL (e.g., for seekable streams), in
                  which case this page will be discarded.
  Return: 0 on success, 1 if there is a buffered BOS page available, or a
           negative value on unrecoverable error.*/
static int op_find_initial_pcm_offset(OggOpusFile *_of,
 OggOpusLink *_link,ogg_page *_og){
  ogg_page     og;
  ogg_int64_t  pcm_start;
  ogg_int64_t  prev_packet_gp;
  ogg_int64_t  cur_page_gp;
  ogg_uint32_t serialno;
  opus_int32   total_duration;
  int          durations[255];
  int          cur_page_eos;
  int          op_count;
  int          pi;
  if(_og==NULL)_og=&og;
  serialno=_of->os.serialno;
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  op_count=0;
  /*We shouldn't have to initialize total_duration, but gcc is too dumb to
     figure out that op_count>0 implies we've been through the whole loop at
     least once.*/
  total_duration=0;
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  do{
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    opus_int64 llret;
    llret=op_get_next_page(_of,_og,_of->end);
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    /*We should get a page unless the file is truncated or mangled.
      Otherwise there are no audio data packets in the whole logical stream.*/
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    if(OP_UNLIKELY(llret<0)){
      /*Fail if there was a read error.*/
      if(llret<OP_FALSE)return (int)llret;
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      /*Fail if the pre-skip is non-zero, since it's asking us to skip more
         samples than exist.*/
      if(_link->head.pre_skip>0)return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
      /*Set pcm_end and end_offset so we can skip the call to
         op_find_final_pcm_offset().*/
      _link->pcm_start=_link->pcm_end=0;
      _link->end_offset=_link->data_offset;
      return 0;
    }
    /*Similarly, if we hit the next link in the chain, we've gone too far.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ogg_page_bos(_og))){
      if(_link->head.pre_skip>0)return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
      /*Set pcm_end and end_offset so we can skip the call to
         op_find_final_pcm_offset().*/
      _link->pcm_end=_link->pcm_start=0;
      _link->end_offset=_link->data_offset;
      /*Tell the caller we've got a buffered page for them.*/
      return 1;
    }
    /*Ignore pages from other streams (not strictly necessary, because of the
       checks in ogg_stream_pagein(), but saves some work).*/
    if(serialno!=(ogg_uint32_t)ogg_page_serialno(_og))continue;
    ogg_stream_pagein(&_of->os,_og);
    /*Bitrate tracking: add the header's bytes here.
      The body bytes are counted when we consume the packets.*/
    _of->bytes_tracked+=_og->header_len;
    /*Count the durations of all packets in the page.*/
    do total_duration=op_collect_audio_packets(_of,durations);
    /*Ignore holes.*/
    while(OP_UNLIKELY(total_duration<0));
    op_count=_of->op_count;
  }
  while(op_count<=0);
  /*We found the first page with a completed audio data packet: actually look
     at the granule position.
    RFC 3533 says, "A special value of -1 (in two's complement) indicates that
     no packets finish on this page," which does not say that a granule
     position that is NOT -1 indicates that some packets DO finish on that page
     (even though this was the intention, libogg itself violated this intention
     for years before we fixed it).
    The Ogg Opus specification only imposes its start-time requirements
     on the granule position of the first page with completed packets,
     so we ignore any set granule positions until then.*/
  cur_page_gp=_of->op[op_count-1].granulepos;
  /*But getting a packet without a valid granule position on the page is not
     okay.*/
  if(cur_page_gp==-1)return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
  cur_page_eos=_of->op[op_count-1].e_o_s;
  if(OP_LIKELY(!cur_page_eos)){
    /*The EOS flag wasn't set.
      Work backwards from the provided granule position to get the starting PCM
       offset.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_granpos_add(&pcm_start,cur_page_gp,-total_duration)<0)){
      /*The starting granule position MUST not be smaller than the amount of
         audio on the first page with completed packets.*/
      return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
    }
  }
  else{
    /*The first page with completed packets was also the last.*/
    if(OP_LIKELY(op_granpos_add(&pcm_start,cur_page_gp,-total_duration)<0)){
      /*If there's less audio on the page than indicated by the granule
         position, then we're doing end-trimming, and the starting PCM offset
         is zero by spec mandate.*/
      pcm_start=0;
      /*However, the end-trimming MUST not ask us to trim more samples than
         exist after applying the pre-skip.*/
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_granpos_cmp(cur_page_gp,_link->head.pre_skip)<0)){
        return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
      }
    }
  }
  /*Timestamp the individual packets.*/
  prev_packet_gp=pcm_start;
  for(pi=0;pi<op_count;pi++){
    if(cur_page_eos){
      ogg_int64_t diff;
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      OP_ALWAYS_TRUE(!op_granpos_diff(&diff,cur_page_gp,prev_packet_gp));
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      diff=durations[pi]-diff;
      /*If we have samples to trim...*/
      if(diff>0){
        /*If we trimmed the entire packet, stop (the spec says encoders
           shouldn't do this, but we support it anyway).*/
        if(OP_UNLIKELY(diff>durations[pi]))break;
        _of->op[pi].granulepos=prev_packet_gp=cur_page_gp;
        /*Move the EOS flag to this packet, if necessary, so we'll trim the
           samples.*/
        _of->op[pi].e_o_s=1;
        continue;
      }
    }
    /*Update the granule position as normal.*/
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    OP_ALWAYS_TRUE(!op_granpos_add(&_of->op[pi].granulepos,
     prev_packet_gp,durations[pi]));
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    prev_packet_gp=_of->op[pi].granulepos;
  }
  /*Update the packet count after end-trimming.*/
  _of->op_count=pi;
  _of->cur_discard_count=_link->head.pre_skip;
  _of->prev_packet_gp=_link->pcm_start=pcm_start;
  return 0;
}

/*Starting from current cursor position, get the final PCM offset of the
   previous page.
  This also validates the duration of the link, which, while not strictly
   required by the spec, we need to ensure duration calculations don't
   overflow.
  This is only done for seekable sources.
  We must validate that op_find_initial_pcm_offset() succeeded for this link
   before calling this function, otherwise it will scan the entire stream
   backwards until it reaches the start, and then fail.*/
static int op_find_final_pcm_offset(OggOpusFile *_of,
 const ogg_uint32_t *_serialnos,int _nserialnos,OggOpusLink *_link,
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 ogg_int64_t *_total_duration){
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  OpusSeekRecord sr;
  ogg_int64_t    total_duration;
  ogg_int64_t    duration;
  ogg_uint32_t   cur_serialno;
  opus_int32     chunk_size;
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  /*For the time being, fetch end PCM offset the simple way.*/
  cur_serialno=_link->serialno;
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  sr.offset=_offset;
  sr.serialno=_end_serialno;
  sr.gp=_end_gp;
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  /*Keep track of the growing chunk size to better handle being multiplexed
     with another high-bitrate stream.*/
  chunk_size=OP_CHUNK_SIZE;
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  while(sr.gp==-1||sr.serialno!=cur_serialno){
    int ret;
    ret=op_get_prev_page_serial(_of,&sr,&chunk_size,sr.offset,
     cur_serialno,_serialnos,_nserialnos);
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
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  }
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  /*This implementation requires that the difference between the first and last
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     granule positions in each link be representable in a signed, 64-bit
     number, and that each link also have at least as many samples as the
     pre-skip requires.*/
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  if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_granpos_diff(&duration,sr.gp,_link->pcm_start)<0)
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   ||OP_UNLIKELY(duration<_link->head.pre_skip)){
    return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
  }
  /*We also require that the total duration be representable in a signed,
     64-bit number.*/
  duration-=_link->head.pre_skip;
  total_duration=*_total_duration;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(OP_INT64_MAX-duration<total_duration))return OP_EBADTIMESTAMP;
  *_total_duration=total_duration+duration;
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  _link->pcm_end=sr.gp;
  _link->end_offset=sr.offset;
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  return 0;
}

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/*Rescale the number _x from the range [0,_from] to [0,_to].
  _from and _to must be positive.*/
opus_int64 op_rescale64(opus_int64 _x,opus_int64 _from,opus_int64 _to){
  opus_int64 frac;
  opus_int64 ret;
  int        i;
  if(_x>=_from)return _to;
  if(_x<=0)return 0;
  frac=0;
  for(i=0;i<63;i++){
    frac<<=1;
    OP_ASSERT(_x<=_from);
    if(_x>=_from>>1){
      _x-=_from-_x;
      frac|=1;
    }
    else _x<<=1;
  }
  ret=0;
  for(i=0;i<63;i++){
    if(frac&1)ret=(ret&_to&1)+(ret>>1)+(_to>>1);
    else ret>>=1;
    frac>>=1;
  }
  return ret;
}
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/*The minimum granule position spacing allowed for making predictions.
  This corresponds to about 1 second of audio at 48 kHz for both Opus and
   Vorbis, or one keyframe interval in Theora with the default keyframe spacing
   of 256.*/
#define OP_GP_SPACING_MIN (48000)

/*Try to estimate the location of the next link using the current seek
   records, assuming the initial granule position of any streams we've found is
   0.*/
static opus_int64 op_predict_link_start(const OpusSeekRecord *_sr,int _nsr,
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 opus_int64 _searched,opus_int64 _end_searched,opus_int32 _bias){
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  opus_int64 bisect;
  int        sri;
  int        srj;
  /*Require that we be at least OP_CHUNK_SIZE from the end.
    We don't require that we be at least OP_CHUNK_SIZE from the beginning,
     because if we are we'll just scan forward without seeking.*/
  _end_searched-=OP_CHUNK_SIZE;
  if(_searched>=_end_searched)return -1;
  bisect=_end_searched;
  for(sri=0;sri<_nsr;sri++){
    ogg_int64_t  gp1;
    ogg_int64_t  gp2_min;
    ogg_uint32_t serialno1;
    opus_int64   offset1;
    /*If the granule position is negative, either it's invalid or we'd cause
       overflow.*/
    gp1=_sr[sri].gp;
    if(gp1<0)continue;
    /*We require some minimum distance between granule positions to make an
       estimate.
      We don't actually know what granule position scheme is being used,
       because we have no idea what kind of stream these came from.
      Therefore we require a minimum spacing between them, with the
       expectation that while bitrates and granule position increments might
       vary locally in quite complex ways, they are globally smooth.*/
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(op_granpos_add(&gp2_min,gp1,OP_GP_SPACING_MIN)<0)){
      /*No granule position would satisfy us.*/
      continue;
    }
    offset1=_sr[sri].offset;
    serialno1=_sr[sri].serialno;
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    for(srj=sri;srj-->0;){
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      ogg_int64_t gp2;
      opus_int64  offset2;
      opus_int64  num;
      ogg_int64_t den;
      ogg_int64_t ipart;
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      gp2=_sr[srj].gp;
      if(gp2<gp2_min)continue;
      /*Oh, and also make sure these came from the same stream.*/
      if(_sr[srj].serialno!=serialno1)continue;
      offset2=_sr[srj].offset;
      /*For once, we can subtract with impunity.*/
      den=gp2-gp1;
      ipart=gp2/den;
      num=offset2-offset1;
      OP_ASSERT(num>0);
      if(ipart>0&&(offset2-_searched)/ipart<num)continue;
      offset2-=ipart*num;
      gp2-=ipart*den;
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      offset2-=op_rescale64(gp2,den,num)-_bias;
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      if(offset2<_searched)continue;
      bisect=OP_MIN(bisect,offset2);
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      break;
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    }
  }
  return bisect>=_end_searched?-1:bisect;
}
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/*Finds each bitstream link, one at a time, using a bisection search.
  This has to begin by knowing the offset of the first link's initial page.*/
static int op_bisect_forward_serialno(OggOpusFile *_of,
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 ogg_uint32_t **_serialnos,int *_nserialnos,int *_cserialnos){
  ogg_page      og;
  OggOpusLink  *links;
  int           nlinks;
  int           clinks;
  ogg_uint32_t *serialnos;
  int           nserialnos;
  ogg_int64_t   total_duration;
  int           nsr;
  int           ret;
  links=_of->links;
  nlinks=clinks=_of->nlinks;
  total_duration=0;
  /*We start with one seek record, for the last page in the file.
    We build up a list of records for places we seek to during link
     enumeration.
    This list is kept sorted in reverse order.
    We only care about seek locations that were _not_ in the current link,
     therefore we can add them one at a time to the end of the list as we
     improve the lower bound on the location where the next link starts.*/
  nsr=1;
  for(;;){
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    opus_int64  end_searched;
    opus_int64  bisect;
    opus_int64  next;
    opus_int64  last;
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    ogg_int64_t end_offset;
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    ogg_int64_t end_gp;
    int         sri;
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    serialnos=*_serialnos;
    nserialnos=*_nserialnos;
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(nlinks>=clinks)){
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(clinks>INT_MAX-1>>1))return OP_EFAULT;
      clinks=2*clinks+1;
      OP_ASSERT(nlinks<clinks);
      links=_ogg_realloc(links,sizeof(*links)*clinks);
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(links==NULL))return OP_EFAULT;
      _of->links=links;
    }
    /*Invariants:
      We have the headers and serial numbers for the link beginning at 'begin'.
      We have the offset and granule position of the last page in the file
       (potentially not a page we care about).*/
    /*Scan the seek records we already have to save us some bisection.*/
    for(sri=0;sri<nsr;sri++){
      if(op_lookup_serialno(_sr[sri].serialno,*_serialnos,*_nserialnos))break;
    }
    /*Is the last page in our current list of serial numbers?*/
    if(sri<=0)break;
    /*Last page wasn't found.
      We have at least one more link.*/
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    last=-1;
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    end_searched=_sr[sri-1].search_start;
    next=_sr[sri-1].offset;
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    end_gp=-1;
    if(sri<nsr){
      _searched=_sr[sri].offset+_sr[sri].size;
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      if(_sr[sri].serialno==links[nlinks-1].serialno){
        end_gp=_sr[sri].gp;
        end_offset=_sr[sri].offset;
      }
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    }
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    nsr=sri;
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    bisect=-1;
    /*If we've already found the end of at least one link, try to pick the
       first bisection point at twice the average link size.
      This is a good choice for files with lots of links that are all about the
       same size.*/
    if(nlinks>1){
      opus_int64 last_offset;
      opus_int64 avg_link_size;
      opus_int64 upper_limit;
      last_offset=links[nlinks-1].offset;
      avg_link_size=last_offset/(nlinks-1);
      upper_limit=end_searched-OP_CHUNK_SIZE-avg_link_size;
      if(OP_LIKELY(last_offset>_searched-avg_link_size)
       &&OP_LIKELY(last_offset<upper_limit)){
        bisect=last_offset+avg_link_size;
        if(OP_LIKELY(bisect<upper_limit))bisect+=avg_link_size;
      }
    }
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    /*We guard against garbage separating the last and first pages of two
       links below.*/
    while(_searched<end_searched){
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      opus_int32 next_bias;
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      /*If we don't have a better estimate, use simple bisection.*/
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      if(bisect==-1)bisect=_searched+(end_searched-_searched>>1);
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      /*If we're within OP_CHUNK_SIZE of the start, scan forward.*/
      if(bisect-_searched<OP_CHUNK_SIZE)bisect=_searched;
      /*Otherwise we're skipping data.
        Forget the end page, if we saw one, as we might miss a later one.*/
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      else end_gp=-1;
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      ret=op_seek_helper(_of,bisect);
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
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      last=op_get_next_page(_of,&og,_sr[nsr-1].offset);
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(last<OP_FALSE))return (int)last;
      next_bias=0;
      if(last==OP_FALSE)end_searched=bisect;
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      else{
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        ogg_uint32_t serialno;
        ogg_int64_t  gp;
        serialno=ogg_page_serialno(&og);
        gp=ogg_page_granulepos(&og);
        if(!op_lookup_serialno(serialno,serialnos,nserialnos)){
          end_searched=bisect;
          next=last;
          /*In reality we should always have enough room, but be paranoid.*/
          if(OP_LIKELY(nsr<_csr)){
            _sr[nsr].search_start=bisect;
            _sr[nsr].offset=last;
            OP_ASSERT(_of->offset-last>=0);
            OP_ASSERT(_of->offset-last<=OP_PAGE_SIZE_MAX);
            _sr[nsr].size=(opus_int32)(_of->offset-last);
            _sr[nsr].serialno=serialno;
            _sr[nsr].gp=gp;
            nsr++;
          }
        }
        else{
          _searched=_of->offset;
          next_bias=OP_CHUNK_SIZE;
          if(serialno==links[nlinks-1].serialno){
            /*This page was from the stream we want, remember it.
              If it's the last such page in the link, we won't have to go back
               looking for it later.*/
            end_gp=gp;
            end_offset=last;
          }
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        }
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      }
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      bisect=op_predict_link_start(_sr,nsr,_searched,end_searched,next_bias);
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    }
    /*Bisection point found.
      Get the final granule position of the previous link, assuming
       op_find_initial_pcm_offset() didn't already determine the link was
       empty.*/
    if(OP_LIKELY(links[nlinks-1].pcm_end==-1)){
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      if(end_gp==-1){
        /*If we don't know where the end page is, we'll have to seek back and
           look for it, starting from the end of the link.*/
        end_offset=next;
        /*Also forget the last page we read.
          It won't be available after the seek.*/
        last=-1;
      }
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      ret=op_find_final_pcm_offset(_of,serialnos,nserialnos,
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       links+nlinks-1,end_offset,links[nlinks-1].serialno,end_gp,
       &total_duration);
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      if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
    }
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    if(last!=next){
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      /*The last page we read was not the first page the next link.
        Move the cursor position to the offset of that first page.
        This only performs an actual seek if the first page of the next link
         does not start at the end of the last page from the current Opus
         stream with a valid granule position.*/
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      ret=op_seek_helper(_of,next);
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
    }
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    ret=op_fetch_headers(_of,&links[nlinks].head,&links[nlinks].tags,
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     _serialnos,_nserialnos,_cserialnos,last!=next?NULL:&og);
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    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
    links[nlinks].offset=next;
    links[nlinks].data_offset=_of->offset;
    links[nlinks].serialno=_of->os.serialno;
    links[nlinks].pcm_end=-1;
    /*This might consume a page from the next link, however the next bisection
       always starts with a seek.*/
    ret=op_find_initial_pcm_offset(_of,links+nlinks,NULL);
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
    _searched=_of->offset;
    /*Mark the current link count so it can be cleaned up on error.*/
    _of->nlinks=++nlinks;
  }
  /*Last page is in the starting serialno list, so we've reached the last link.
    Now find the last granule position for it (if we didn't the first time we
     looked at the end of the stream, and if op_find_initial_pcm_offset()
     didn't already determine the link was empty).*/
  if(OP_LIKELY(links[nlinks-1].pcm_end==-1)){
    ret=op_find_final_pcm_offset(_of,serialnos,nserialnos,
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     links+nlinks-1,_sr[0].offset,_sr[0].serialno,_sr[0].gp,&total_duration);
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    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
  }
  /*Trim back the links array if necessary.*/
  links=_ogg_realloc(links,sizeof(*links)*nlinks);
  if(OP_LIKELY(links!=NULL))_of->links=links;
  /*We also don't need these anymore.*/
  _ogg_free(*_serialnos);
  *_serialnos=NULL;
  *_cserialnos=*_nserialnos=0;
  return 0;
}

static int op_make_decode_ready(OggOpusFile *_of){
  OpusHead *head;
  int       li;
  int       stream_count;
  int       coupled_count;
  int       channel_count;
  if(_of->ready_state>OP_STREAMSET)return 0;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state<OP_STREAMSET))return OP_EFAULT;
  li=_of->seekable?_of->cur_link:0;
  head=&_of->links[li].head;
  stream_count=head->stream_count;
  coupled_count=head->coupled_count;
  channel_count=head->channel_count;
  /*Check to see if the current decoder is compatible with the current link.*/
  if(_of->od!=NULL&&_of->od_stream_count==stream_count
   &&_of->od_coupled_count==coupled_count&&_of->od_channel_count==channel_count
   &&memcmp(_of->od_mapping,head->mapping,
   sizeof(*head->mapping)*channel_count)==0){
    opus_multistream_decoder_ctl(_of->od,OPUS_RESET_STATE);
  }
  else{
    int err;
    opus_multistream_decoder_destroy(_of->od);
    _of->od=opus_multistream_decoder_create(48000,channel_count,
     stream_count,coupled_count,head->mapping,&err);
    if(_of->od==NULL)return OP_EFAULT;
    _of->od_stream_count=stream_count;
    _of->od_coupled_count=coupled_count;
    _of->od_channel_count=channel_count;
    memcpy(_of->od_mapping,head->mapping,sizeof(*head->mapping)*channel_count);
  }
#if defined(OPUS_SET_GAIN)
  opus_multistream_decoder_ctl(_of->od,OPUS_SET_GAIN(head->output_gain));
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#else
/*A fallback that works with both float and fixed-point is a bunch of work,
   so just force people to use a sufficiently new version.
  This is deployed well enough at this point that this shouldn't be a burden.*/
# error "libopus 1.0.1 or later required"
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#endif
  _of->ready_state=OP_INITSET;
  _of->bytes_tracked=0;
  _of->samples_tracked=0;
#if !defined(OP_FIXED_POINT)
  _of->dither_mute=65;
  /*Use the serial number for the PRNG seed to get repeatable output for
     straight play-throughs.*/
  _of->dither_seed=_of->links[li].serialno;
#endif
  return 0;
}

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static int op_open_seekable2_impl(OggOpusFile *_of){
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  /*64 seek records should be enough for anybody.
    Actually, with a bisection search in a 63-bit range down to OP_CHUNK_SIZE
     granularity, much more than enough.*/
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  OpusSeekRecord sr[64];
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  opus_int64     data_offset;
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  int            ret;
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  /*We can seek, so set out learning all about this file.*/
  (*_of->callbacks.seek)(_of->source,0,SEEK_END);
  _of->offset=_of->end=(*_of->callbacks.tell)(_of->source);
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  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->end<0))return OP_EREAD;
  data_offset=_of->links[0].data_offset;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->end<data_offset))return OP_EBADLINK;
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  /*Get the offset of the last page of the physical bitstream, or, if we're
     lucky, the last Opus page of the first link, as most Ogg Opus files will
     contain a single logical bitstream.*/
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  ret=op_get_prev_page_serial(_of,sr,NULL,_of->end,
   _of->links[0].serialno,_of->serialnos,_of->nserialnos);
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
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  /*If there's any trailing junk, forget about it.*/
  _of->end=sr[0].offset+sr[0].size;
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  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->end<data_offset))return OP_EBADLINK;
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  /*Now enumerate the bitstream structure.*/
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  return op_bisect_forward_serialno(_of,data_offset,sr,sizeof(sr)/sizeof(*sr),
   &_of->serialnos,&_of->nserialnos,&_of->cserialnos);
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}

static int op_open_seekable2(OggOpusFile *_of){
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  ogg_sync_state    oy_start;
  ogg_stream_state  os_start;
  ogg_packet       *op_start;
  opus_int64        start_offset;
  int               start_op_count;
  int               ret;
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  /*We're partially open and have a first link header state in storage in _of.
    Save off that stream state so we can come back to it.*/
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  start_op_count=_of->op_count;
  /*This is a bit too large to put on the stack unconditionally.*/
  op_start=(ogg_packet *)_ogg_malloc(sizeof(*op_start)*start_op_count);
  if(op_start==NULL)return OP_EFAULT;
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  *&oy_start=_of->oy;
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  *&os_start=_of->os;
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  start_offset=_of->offset;
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  memcpy(op_start,_of->op,sizeof(*op_start)*start_op_count);
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  OP_ASSERT((*_of->callbacks.tell)(_of->source)==op_position(_of));
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  ogg_sync_init(&_of->oy);
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  ogg_stream_init(&_of->os,-1);
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  ret=op_open_seekable2_impl(_of);
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  /*Restore the old stream state.*/
  ogg_stream_clear(&_of->os);
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  ogg_sync_clear(&_of->oy);
  *&_of->oy=*&oy_start;
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  *&_of->os=*&os_start;
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  _of->offset=start_offset;
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  _of->op_count=start_op_count;
  memcpy(_of->op,op_start,sizeof(*_of->op)*start_op_count);
  _ogg_free(op_start);
  _of->prev_packet_gp=_of->links[0].pcm_start;
  _of->cur_discard_count=_of->links[0].head.pre_skip;
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  if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))return ret;
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  /*And restore the position indicator.*/
  ret=(*_of->callbacks.seek)(_of->source,op_position(_of),SEEK_SET);
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  return OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0)?OP_EREAD:0;
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}

/*Clear out the current logical bitstream decoder.*/
static void op_decode_clear(OggOpusFile *_of){
  /*We don't actually free the decoder.
    We might be able to re-use it for the next link.*/
  _of->op_count=0;
  _of->od_buffer_size=0;
  _of->prev_packet_gp=-1;
  if(!_of->seekable){
    OP_ASSERT(_of->ready_state>=OP_INITSET);
    opus_tags_clear(&_of->links[0].tags);
  }
  _of->ready_state=OP_OPENED;
}

static void op_clear(OggOpusFile *_of){
  OggOpusLink *links;
  _ogg_free(_of->od_buffer);
  if(_of->od!=NULL)opus_multistream_decoder_destroy(_of->od);
  links=_of->links;
  if(!_of->seekable){
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    if(_of->ready_state>OP_OPENED||_of->ready_state==OP_PARTOPEN){
      opus_tags_clear(&links[0].tags);
    }
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  }
  else if(OP_LIKELY(links!=NULL)){
    int nlinks;
    int link;
    nlinks=_of->nlinks;
    for(link=0;link<nlinks;link++)opus_tags_clear(&links[link].tags);
  }
  _ogg_free(links);
  _ogg_free(_of->serialnos);
  ogg_stream_clear(&_of->os);
  ogg_sync_clear(&_of->oy);
  if(_of->callbacks.close!=NULL)(*_of->callbacks.close)(_of->source);
}

static int op_open1(OggOpusFile *_of,
 void *_source,const OpusFileCallbacks *_cb,
 const unsigned char *_initial_data,size_t _initial_bytes){
  ogg_page  og;
  ogg_page *pog;
  int       seekable;
  int       ret;
  memset(_of,0,sizeof(*_of));
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  _of->end=-1;
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  _of->source=_source;
  *&_of->callbacks=*_cb;
  /*At a minimum, we need to be able to read data.*/
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->callbacks.read==NULL))return OP_EREAD;
  /*Initialize the framing state.*/
  ogg_sync_init(&_of->oy);
  /*Perhaps some data was previously read into a buffer for testing against
     other stream types.
    Allow initialization from this previously read data (especially as we may
     be reading from a non-seekable stream).
    This requires copying it into a buffer allocated by ogg_sync_buffer() and
     doesn't support seeking, so this is not a good mechanism to use for
     decoding entire files from RAM.*/
  if(_initial_bytes>0){
    char *buffer;
    buffer=ogg_sync_buffer(&_of->oy,_initial_bytes);
    memcpy(buffer,_initial_data,_initial_bytes*sizeof(*buffer));
    ogg_sync_wrote(&_of->oy,_initial_bytes);
  }
  /*Can we seek?
    Stevens suggests the seek test is portable.*/
  seekable=_cb->seek!=NULL&&(*_cb->seek)(_source,0,SEEK_CUR)!=-1;
  /*If seek is implemented, tell must also be implemented.*/
  if(seekable){
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->callbacks.tell==NULL))return OP_EINVAL;
    else{
      opus_int64 pos;
      pos=(*_of->callbacks.tell)(_of->source);
      /*If the current position is not equal to the initial bytes consumed,
         absolute seeking will not work.*/
      if(OP_UNLIKELY(pos!=(opus_int64)_initial_bytes))return OP_EINVAL;
    }
  }
  _of->seekable=seekable;
  /*Don't seek yet.
    Set up a 'single' (current) logical bitstream entry for partial open.*/
  _of->links=(OggOpusLink *)_ogg_malloc(sizeof(*_of->links));
  /*The serialno gets filled in later by op_fetch_headers().*/
  ogg_stream_init(&_of->os,-1);
  pog=NULL;
  for(;;){
    /*Fetch all BOS pages, store the Opus header and all seen serial numbers,
      and load subsequent Opus setup headers.*/
    ret=op_fetch_headers(_of,&_of->links[0].head,&_of->links[0].tags,
     &_of->serialnos,&_of->nserialnos,&_of->cserialnos,pog);
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))break;
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    _of->nlinks=1;
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    _of->links[0].offset=0;
    _of->links[0].data_offset=_of->offset;
    _of->links[0].pcm_end=-1;
    _of->links[0].serialno=_of->os.serialno;
    /*Fetch the initial PCM offset.*/
    ret=op_find_initial_pcm_offset(_of,_of->links,&og);
    if(seekable||OP_LIKELY(ret<=0))break;
    /*This link was empty, but we already have the BOS page for the next one in
       og.
      We can't seek, so start processing the next link right now.*/
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    opus_tags_clear(&_of->links[0].tags);
    _of->nlinks=0;
    if(!seekable)_of->cur_link++;
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    pog=&og;
  }
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0)){
    /*Don't auto-close the stream on failure.*/
    _of->callbacks.close=NULL;
    op_clear(_of);
  }
  else _of->ready_state=OP_PARTOPEN;
  return ret;
}

static int op_open2(OggOpusFile *_of){
  int ret;
  OP_ASSERT(_of->ready_state==OP_PARTOPEN);
  if(_of->seekable){
    _of->ready_state=OP_OPENED;
    ret=op_open_seekable2(_of);
  }
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  else ret=0;
  if(OP_LIKELY(ret>=0)){
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    /*We have buffered packets from op_find_initial_pcm_offset().
      Move to OP_INITSET so we can use them.*/
    _of->ready_state=OP_STREAMSET;
    ret=op_make_decode_ready(_of);
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    if(OP_LIKELY(ret>=0))return 0;
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  }
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  /*Don't auto-close the stream on failure.*/
  _of->callbacks.close=NULL;
  op_clear(_of);
  return ret;
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}

OggOpusFile *op_test_callbacks(void *_source,const OpusFileCallbacks *_cb,
 const unsigned char *_initial_data,size_t _initial_bytes,int *_error){
  OggOpusFile *of;
  int          ret;
  of=(OggOpusFile *)_ogg_malloc(sizeof(*of));
  ret=OP_EFAULT;
  if(OP_LIKELY(of!=NULL)){
    ret=op_open1(of,_source,_cb,_initial_data,_initial_bytes);
    if(OP_LIKELY(ret>=0)){
      if(_error!=NULL)*_error=0;
      return of;
    }
    _ogg_free(of);
  }
  if(_error!=NULL)*_error=ret;
  return NULL;
}

OggOpusFile *op_open_callbacks(void *_source,const OpusFileCallbacks *_cb,
 const unsigned char *_initial_data,size_t _initial_bytes,int *_error){
  OggOpusFile *of;
  of=op_test_callbacks(_source,_cb,_initial_data,_initial_bytes,_error);
  if(OP_LIKELY(of!=NULL)){
    int ret;
    ret=op_open2(of);
    if(OP_LIKELY(ret>=0))return of;
    if(_error!=NULL)*_error=ret;
    _ogg_free(of);
  }
  return NULL;
}

/*Convenience routine to clean up from failure for the open functions that
   create their own streams.*/
static OggOpusFile *op_open_close_on_failure(void *_source,
 const OpusFileCallbacks *_cb,int *_error){
  OggOpusFile *of;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_source==NULL)){
    if(_error!=NULL)*_error=OP_EFAULT;
    return NULL;
  }
  of=op_open_callbacks(_source,_cb,NULL,0,_error);
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(of==NULL))(*_cb->close)(_source);
  return of;
}

OggOpusFile *op_open_file(const char *_path,int *_error){
  OpusFileCallbacks cb;
  return op_open_close_on_failure(op_fopen(&cb,_path,"rb"),&cb,_error);
}

OggOpusFile *op_open_memory(const unsigned char *_data,size_t _size,
 int *_error){
  OpusFileCallbacks cb;
  return op_open_close_on_failure(op_mem_stream_create(&cb,_data,_size),&cb,
   _error);
}

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OggOpusFile *op_vopen_url(const char *_url,int *_error,va_list _ap){
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  OpusFileCallbacks cb;
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  return op_open_close_on_failure(op_url_stream_vcreate(&cb,_url,_ap),&cb,
   _error);
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}

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OggOpusFile *op_open_url(const char *_url,int *_error,...){
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap,_error);
  return op_vopen_url(_url,_error,ap);
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}

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/*Convenience routine to clean up from failure for the open functions that
   create their own streams.*/
static OggOpusFile *op_test_close_on_failure(void *_source,
 const OpusFileCallbacks *_cb,int *_error){
  OggOpusFile *of;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_source==NULL)){
    if(_error!=NULL)*_error=OP_EFAULT;
    return NULL;
  }
  of=op_test_callbacks(_source,_cb,NULL,0,_error);
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(of==NULL))(*_cb->close)(_source);
  return of;
}

OggOpusFile *op_test_file(const char *_path,int *_error){
  OpusFileCallbacks cb;
  return op_test_close_on_failure(op_fopen(&cb,_path,"rb"),&cb,_error);
}

OggOpusFile *op_test_memory(const unsigned char *_data,size_t _size,
 int *_error){
  OpusFileCallbacks cb;
  return op_test_close_on_failure(op_mem_stream_create(&cb,_data,_size),&cb,
   _error);
}

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OggOpusFile *op_vtest_url(const char *_url,int *_error,va_list _ap){
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  OpusFileCallbacks cb;
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  return op_test_close_on_failure(op_url_stream_vcreate(&cb,_url,_ap),&cb,
   _error);
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}

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OggOpusFile *op_test_url(const char *_url,int *_error,...){
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap,_error);
  return op_vtest_url(_url,_error,ap);
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}

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int op_test_open(OggOpusFile *_of){
  int ret;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state!=OP_PARTOPEN))return OP_EINVAL;
  ret=op_open2(_of);
  /*op_open2() will clear this structure on failure.
    Reset its contents to prevent double-frees in op_free().*/
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(ret<0))memset(_of,0,sizeof(*_of));
  return ret;
}

void op_free(OggOpusFile *_of){
  if(OP_LIKELY(_of!=NULL)){
    op_clear(_of);
    _ogg_free(_of);
  }
}

int op_seekable(OggOpusFile *_of){
  return _of->seekable;
}

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int op_link_count(OggOpusFile *_of){
  return _of->nlinks;
}

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ogg_uint32_t op_serialno(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_li>=_of->nlinks))_li=_of->nlinks-1;
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  if(!_of->seekable)_li=0;
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  return _of->links[_li<0?_of->cur_link:_li].serialno;
}

int op_channel_count(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
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  return op_head(_of,_li)->channel_count;
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}

opus_int64 op_raw_total(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state<OP_OPENED)
   ||OP_UNLIKELY(!_of->seekable)
   ||OP_UNLIKELY(_li>=_of->nlinks)){
    return OP_EINVAL;
  }
  if(_li<0)return _of->end-_of->links[0].offset;
  return (_li+1>=_of->nlinks?_of->end:_of->links[_li+1].offset)
   -_of->links[_li].offset;
}

ogg_int64_t op_pcm_total(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
  OggOpusLink *links;
  ogg_int64_t  diff;
  int          nlinks;
  nlinks=_of->nlinks;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state<OP_OPENED)
   ||OP_UNLIKELY(!_of->seekable)
   ||OP_UNLIKELY(_li>=nlinks)){
    return OP_EINVAL;
  }
  links=_of->links;
  /*We verify that the granule position differences are larger than the
     pre-skip and that the total duration does not overflow during link
     enumeration, so we don't have to check here.*/
  if(_li<0){
    ogg_int64_t pcm_total;
    int         li;
    pcm_total=0;
    for(li=0;li<nlinks;li++){
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      OP_ALWAYS_TRUE(!op_granpos_diff(&diff,
       links[li].pcm_end,links[li].pcm_start));
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      pcm_total+=diff-links[li].head.pre_skip;
    }
    return pcm_total;
  }
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  OP_ALWAYS_TRUE(!op_granpos_diff(&diff,
   links[_li].pcm_end,links[_li].pcm_start));
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  return diff-links[_li].head.pre_skip;
}

const OpusHead *op_head(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
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  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_li>=_of->nlinks))_li=_of->nlinks-1;
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  if(!_of->seekable)_li=0;
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  return &_of->links[_li<0?_of->cur_link:_li].head;
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}

const OpusTags *op_tags(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
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  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_li>=_of->nlinks))_li=_of->nlinks-1;
  if(!_of->seekable){
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    if(_of->ready_state<OP_STREAMSET&&_of->ready_state!=OP_PARTOPEN){
      return NULL;
    }
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    _li=0;
  }
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  else if(_li<0)_li=_of->ready_state>=OP_STREAMSET?_of->cur_link:0;
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  return &_of->links[_li].tags;
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}

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int op_current_link(OggOpusFile *_of){
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state<OP_OPENED))return OP_EINVAL;
  return _of->cur_link;
}

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/*Compute an average bitrate given a byte and sample count.
  Return: The bitrate in bits per second.*/
static opus_int32 op_calc_bitrate(opus_int64 _bytes,ogg_int64_t _samples){
  /*These rates are absurd, but let's handle them anyway.*/
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_bytes>(OP_INT64_MAX-(_samples>>1))/(48000*8))){
    ogg_int64_t den;
    if(OP_UNLIKELY(_bytes/(0x7FFFFFFFF/(48000*8))>=_samples))return 0x7FFFFFFF;
    den=_samples/(48000*8);
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    return (opus_int32)((_bytes+(den>>1))/den);
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  }
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_samples<=0))return 0x7FFFFFFF;
  /*This can't actually overflow in normal operation: even with a pre-skip of
     545 2.5 ms frames with 8 streams running at 1282*8+1 bytes per packet
     (1275 byte frames + Opus framing overhead + Ogg lacing values), that all
     produce a single sample of decoded output, we still don't top 45 Mbps.
    The only way to get bitrates larger than that is with excessive Opus
     padding, more encoded streams than output channels, or lots and lots of
     Ogg pages with no packets on them.*/
  return (opus_int32)OP_MIN((_bytes*48000*8+(_samples>>1))/_samples,0x7FFFFFFF);
}

opus_int32 op_bitrate(OggOpusFile *_of,int _li){
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state<OP_OPENED)||OP_UNLIKELY(!_of->seekable)
   ||OP_UNLIKELY(_li>=_of->nlinks)){
    return OP_EINVAL;
  }
  return op_calc_bitrate(op_raw_total(_of,_li),op_pcm_total(_of,_li));
}

opus_int32 op_bitrate_instant(OggOpusFile *_of){
  ogg_int64_t samples_tracked;
  opus_int32  ret;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(_of->ready_state<OP_OPENED))return OP_EINVAL;
  samples_tracked=_of->samples_tracked;
  if(OP_UNLIKELY(samples_tracked==0))return OP_FALSE;
  ret=op_calc_bitrate(_of->bytes_tracked,samples_tracked);
  _of->bytes_tracked=0;
  _of->samples_tracked=0;
  return ret;
}

/*Fetch and process a page.
  This handles the case where we're at a bitstream boundary and dumps the
   decoding machine.
  If the decoding machine is unloaded, it loads it.
  It also keeps prev_packet_gp up to date (seek and read both use this; seek
   uses a special hack with _readp).
  Return: <0) Error, OP_HOLE (lost packet), or OP_EOF.
           0) Need more data (only if _readp==0).
           1) Got at least one audio data packet.*/
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static int op_fetch_and_process_page(OggOpusFile *_of,
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 ogg_page *_og,opus_int64 _page_pos,int _readp,int _spanp,int _ignore_holes){
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  OggOpusLink  *links;
  ogg_uint32_t  cur_serialno;
  int           seekable;
  int           cur_link;
  int           ret;
  if(OP_LIKELY(_of->ready_state>=OP_INITSET)
   &&OP_LIKELY(_of->op_pos<_of->op_count)){
    /*We're ready to decode and have at least one packet available already.*/
    return 1;
  }
  if(!_readp)return 0;
  seekable=_of->seekable;
  links=_of->links;
  cur_link=seekable?_of->cur_link:0;
  cur_serialno=links[cur_link].serialno;
  /*Handle one page.*/
  for(;;){
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    ogg_page og;
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    OP_ASSERT(_of->ready_state>=OP_OPENED);
    /*This loop is not strictly necessary, but there's no sense in doing the
       extra checks of the larger loop for the common case in a multiplexed
       bistream where the page is simply part of a different logical
       bitstream.*/
    do{
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      /*If we were given a page to use, use it.*/
      if(_og!=NULL){
        *&og=*_og;
        _og=NULL;
      }
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      /*Keep reading until we get a page with the correct serialno.*/