encodeframe.c 263 KB
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/*
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 * Copyright (c) 2016, Alliance for Open Media. All rights reserved
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 *
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 * This source code is subject to the terms of the BSD 2 Clause License and
 * the Alliance for Open Media Patent License 1.0. If the BSD 2 Clause License
 * was not distributed with this source code in the LICENSE file, you can
 * obtain it at www.aomedia.org/license/software. If the Alliance for Open
 * Media Patent License 1.0 was not distributed with this source code in the
 * PATENTS file, you can obtain it at www.aomedia.org/license/patent.
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 */

#include <limits.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

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#include "./av1_rtcd.h"
#include "./aom_dsp_rtcd.h"
#include "./aom_config.h"
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#include "aom_dsp/aom_dsp_common.h"
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#include "aom_dsp/binary_codes_writer.h"
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#include "aom_ports/mem.h"
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#include "aom_ports/aom_timer.h"
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#include "aom_ports/system_state.h"
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#include "av1/common/common.h"
#include "av1/common/entropy.h"
#include "av1/common/entropymode.h"
#include "av1/common/idct.h"
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#include "av1/common/mv.h"
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#include "av1/common/mvref_common.h"
#include "av1/common/pred_common.h"
#include "av1/common/quant_common.h"
#include "av1/common/reconintra.h"
#include "av1/common/reconinter.h"
#include "av1/common/seg_common.h"
#include "av1/common/tile_common.h"
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#include "av1/encoder/aq_complexity.h"
#include "av1/encoder/aq_cyclicrefresh.h"
#include "av1/encoder/aq_variance.h"
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#if CONFIG_SUPERTX
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#include "av1/encoder/cost.h"
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#endif
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#if CONFIG_GLOBAL_MOTION || CONFIG_WARPED_MOTION
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#include "av1/common/warped_motion.h"
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#endif  // CONFIG_GLOBAL_MOTION || CONFIG_WARPED_MOTION
#if CONFIG_GLOBAL_MOTION
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#include "av1/encoder/global_motion.h"
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#endif  // CONFIG_GLOBAL_MOTION
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#include "av1/encoder/encodeframe.h"
#include "av1/encoder/encodemb.h"
#include "av1/encoder/encodemv.h"
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#if CONFIG_LV_MAP
#include "av1/encoder/encodetxb.h"
#endif
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#include "av1/encoder/ethread.h"
#include "av1/encoder/extend.h"
#include "av1/encoder/rd.h"
#include "av1/encoder/rdopt.h"
#include "av1/encoder/segmentation.h"
#include "av1/encoder/tokenize.h"
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#if CONFIG_PVQ
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#include "av1/common/pvq.h"
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#include "av1/encoder/pvq_encoder.h"
#endif
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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#define IF_HBD(...) __VA_ARGS__
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#else
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#define IF_HBD(...)
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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static void encode_superblock(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
                              TOKENEXTRA **t, RUN_TYPE dry_run, int mi_row,
                              int mi_col, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                              PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx, int *rate);
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#if CONFIG_SUPERTX
static int check_intra_b(PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx);

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static int check_intra_sb(const AV1_COMP *cpi, const TileInfo *const tile,
                          int mi_row, int mi_col, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                          PC_TREE *pc_tree);
static void predict_superblock(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
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#if CONFIG_EXT_INTER
                               int mi_row_ori, int mi_col_ori,
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_INTER
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                               int mi_row_pred, int mi_col_pred,
                               BLOCK_SIZE bsize_pred, int b_sub8x8, int block);
static int check_supertx_sb(BLOCK_SIZE bsize, TX_SIZE supertx_size,
                            PC_TREE *pc_tree);
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static void predict_sb_complex(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
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                               const TileInfo *const tile, int mi_row,
                               int mi_col, int mi_row_ori, int mi_col_ori,
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                               RUN_TYPE dry_run, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
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                               BLOCK_SIZE top_bsize, uint8_t *dst_buf[3],
                               int dst_stride[3], PC_TREE *pc_tree);
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static void update_state_sb_supertx(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
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                                    const TileInfo *const tile, int mi_row,
                                    int mi_col, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
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                                    RUN_TYPE dry_run, PC_TREE *pc_tree);
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static void rd_supertx_sb(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
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                          const TileInfo *const tile, int mi_row, int mi_col,
                          BLOCK_SIZE bsize, int *tmp_rate, int64_t *tmp_dist,
                          TX_TYPE *best_tx, PC_TREE *pc_tree);
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#endif  // CONFIG_SUPERTX

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// This is used as a reference when computing the source variance for the
//  purposes of activity masking.
// Eventually this should be replaced by custom no-reference routines,
//  which will be faster.
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static const uint8_t AV1_VAR_OFFS[MAX_SB_SIZE] = {
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  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
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#if CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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};

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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
static const uint16_t AV1_HIGH_VAR_OFFS_8[MAX_SB_SIZE] = {
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  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
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#if CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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};

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static const uint16_t AV1_HIGH_VAR_OFFS_10[MAX_SB_SIZE] = {
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  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
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#if CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4,
  128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4, 128 * 4
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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};

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static const uint16_t AV1_HIGH_VAR_OFFS_12[MAX_SB_SIZE] = {
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  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16,
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#if CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16, 128 * 16,
  128 * 16
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_PARTITION
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};
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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unsigned int av1_get_sby_perpixel_variance(const AV1_COMP *cpi,
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                                           const struct buf_2d *ref,
                                           BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
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  unsigned int sse;
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  const unsigned int var =
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      cpi->fn_ptr[bs].vf(ref->buf, ref->stride, AV1_VAR_OFFS, 0, &sse);
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  return ROUND_POWER_OF_TWO(var, num_pels_log2_lookup[bs]);
}

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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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unsigned int av1_high_get_sby_perpixel_variance(const AV1_COMP *cpi,
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                                                const struct buf_2d *ref,
                                                BLOCK_SIZE bs, int bd) {
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  unsigned int var, sse;
  switch (bd) {
    case 10:
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      var =
          cpi->fn_ptr[bs].vf(ref->buf, ref->stride,
                             CONVERT_TO_BYTEPTR(AV1_HIGH_VAR_OFFS_10), 0, &sse);
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      break;
    case 12:
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      var =
          cpi->fn_ptr[bs].vf(ref->buf, ref->stride,
                             CONVERT_TO_BYTEPTR(AV1_HIGH_VAR_OFFS_12), 0, &sse);
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      break;
    case 8:
    default:
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      var =
          cpi->fn_ptr[bs].vf(ref->buf, ref->stride,
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                             CONVERT_TO_BYTEPTR(AV1_HIGH_VAR_OFFS_8), 0, &sse);
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      break;
  }
  return ROUND_POWER_OF_TWO(var, num_pels_log2_lookup[bs]);
}
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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static unsigned int get_sby_perpixel_diff_variance(const AV1_COMP *const cpi,
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                                                   const struct buf_2d *ref,
                                                   int mi_row, int mi_col,
                                                   BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  unsigned int sse, var;
  uint8_t *last_y;
  const YV12_BUFFER_CONFIG *last = get_ref_frame_buffer(cpi, LAST_FRAME);

  assert(last != NULL);
  last_y =
      &last->y_buffer[mi_row * MI_SIZE * last->y_stride + mi_col * MI_SIZE];
  var = cpi->fn_ptr[bs].vf(ref->buf, ref->stride, last_y, last->y_stride, &sse);
  return ROUND_POWER_OF_TWO(var, num_pels_log2_lookup[bs]);
}

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static BLOCK_SIZE get_rd_var_based_fixed_partition(AV1_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
                                                   int mi_row, int mi_col) {
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  unsigned int var = get_sby_perpixel_diff_variance(
      cpi, &x->plane[0].src, mi_row, mi_col, BLOCK_64X64);
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  if (var < 8)
    return BLOCK_64X64;
  else if (var < 128)
    return BLOCK_32X32;
  else if (var < 2048)
    return BLOCK_16X16;
  else
    return BLOCK_8X8;
}

// Lighter version of set_offsets that only sets the mode info
// pointers.
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static void set_mode_info_offsets(const AV1_COMP *const cpi,
                                  MACROBLOCK *const x, MACROBLOCKD *const xd,
                                  int mi_row, int mi_col) {
  const AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  const int idx_str = xd->mi_stride * mi_row + mi_col;
  xd->mi = cm->mi_grid_visible + idx_str;
  xd->mi[0] = cm->mi + idx_str;
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  x->mbmi_ext = cpi->mbmi_ext_base + (mi_row * cm->mi_cols + mi_col);
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}

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static void set_offsets_without_segment_id(const AV1_COMP *const cpi,
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                                           const TileInfo *const tile,
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                                           MACROBLOCK *const x, int mi_row,
                                           int mi_col, BLOCK_SIZE bsize) {
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  const AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  const int mi_width = mi_size_wide[bsize];
  const int mi_height = mi_size_high[bsize];
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  set_skip_context(xd, mi_row, mi_col);

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  set_mode_info_offsets(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col);
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
  xd->above_txfm_context = cm->above_txfm_context + mi_col;
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  xd->left_txfm_context =
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      xd->left_txfm_context_buffer + (mi_row & MAX_MIB_MASK);
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  xd->max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bsize];
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#endif

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  // Set up destination pointers.
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  av1_setup_dst_planes(xd->plane, get_frame_new_buffer(cm), mi_row, mi_col);
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  // Set up limit values for MV components.
  // Mv beyond the range do not produce new/different prediction block.
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  x->mv_row_min = -(((mi_row + mi_height) * MI_SIZE) + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND);
  x->mv_col_min = -(((mi_col + mi_width) * MI_SIZE) + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND);
  x->mv_row_max = (cm->mi_rows - mi_row) * MI_SIZE + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND;
  x->mv_col_max = (cm->mi_cols - mi_col) * MI_SIZE + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND;
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  set_plane_n4(xd, mi_width, mi_height);
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  // Set up distance of MB to edge of frame in 1/8th pel units.
  assert(!(mi_col & (mi_width - 1)) && !(mi_row & (mi_height - 1)));
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#if CONFIG_DEPENDENT_HORZTILES
  set_mi_row_col(xd, tile, mi_row, mi_height, mi_col, mi_width, cm->mi_rows,
                 cm->mi_cols, cm->dependent_horz_tiles);
#else
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  set_mi_row_col(xd, tile, mi_row, mi_height, mi_col, mi_width, cm->mi_rows,
                 cm->mi_cols);
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#endif
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  // Set up source buffers.
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  av1_setup_src_planes(x, cpi->Source, mi_row, mi_col);
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  // R/D setup.
  x->rddiv = cpi->rd.RDDIV;
  x->rdmult = cpi->rd.RDMULT;

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  // required by av1_append_sub8x8_mvs_for_idx() and av1_find_best_ref_mvs()
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  xd->tile = *tile;
}

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static void set_offsets(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, const TileInfo *const tile,
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                        MACROBLOCK *const x, int mi_row, int mi_col,
                        BLOCK_SIZE bsize) {
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  const AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi;
  const struct segmentation *const seg = &cm->seg;

  set_offsets_without_segment_id(cpi, tile, x, mi_row, mi_col, bsize);

  mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;

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  // Setup segment ID.
  if (seg->enabled) {
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    if (!cpi->vaq_refresh) {
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      const uint8_t *const map =
          seg->update_map ? cpi->segmentation_map : cm->last_frame_seg_map;
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      mbmi->segment_id = get_segment_id(cm, map, bsize, mi_row, mi_col);
    }
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    av1_init_plane_quantizers(cpi, x, mbmi->segment_id);
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  } else {
    mbmi->segment_id = 0;
  }
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#if CONFIG_SUPERTX
  mbmi->segment_id_supertx = MAX_SEGMENTS;
#endif  // CONFIG_SUPERTX
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}

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#if CONFIG_SUPERTX
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static void set_offsets_supertx(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
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                                const TileInfo *const tile, int mi_row,
                                int mi_col, BLOCK_SIZE bsize) {
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  MACROBLOCK *const x = &td->mb;
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  const AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  const int mi_width = mi_size_wide[bsize];
  const int mi_height = mi_size_high[bsize];
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#if CONFIG_DEPENDENT_HORZTILES
  set_mode_info_offsets(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, cm->dependent_horz_tiles);
#else
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  set_mode_info_offsets(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col);
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#endif
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  // Set up distance of MB to edge of frame in 1/8th pel units.
  assert(!(mi_col & (mi_width - 1)) && !(mi_row & (mi_height - 1)));
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  set_mi_row_col(xd, tile, mi_row, mi_height, mi_col, mi_width, cm->mi_rows,
                 cm->mi_cols);
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}

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static void set_offsets_extend(const AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *td,
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                               const TileInfo *const tile, int mi_row_pred,
                               int mi_col_pred, int mi_row_ori, int mi_col_ori,
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                               BLOCK_SIZE bsize_pred) {
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  // Used in supertx
  // (mi_row_ori, mi_col_ori, bsize_ori): region for mv
  // (mi_row_pred, mi_col_pred, bsize_pred): region to predict
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &td->mb;
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  const AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  const int mi_width = mi_size_wide[bsize_pred];
  const int mi_height = mi_size_high[bsize_pred];
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#if CONFIG_DEPENDENT_HORZTILES
  set_mode_info_offsets(cpi, x, xd, mi_row_ori, mi_col_ori,
                        cm->dependent_horz_tiles);
#else
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  set_mode_info_offsets(cpi, x, xd, mi_row_ori, mi_col_ori);
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#endif
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  // Set up limit values for MV components.
  // Mv beyond the range do not produce new/different prediction block.
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  x->mv_row_min = -(((mi_row_pred + mi_height) * MI_SIZE) + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND);
  x->mv_col_min = -(((mi_col_pred + mi_width) * MI_SIZE) + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND);
  x->mv_row_max = (cm->mi_rows - mi_row_pred) * MI_SIZE + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND;
  x->mv_col_max = (cm->mi_cols - mi_col_pred) * MI_SIZE + AOM_INTERP_EXTEND;
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// Set up distance of MB to edge of frame in 1/8th pel units.
#if !CONFIG_CB4X4
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  assert(!(mi_col_pred & (mi_width - mi_size_wide[BLOCK_8X8])) &&
         !(mi_row_pred & (mi_height - mi_size_high[BLOCK_8X8])));
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#endif
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  set_mi_row_col(xd, tile, mi_row_pred, mi_height, mi_col_pred, mi_width,
                 cm->mi_rows, cm->mi_cols);
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  xd->up_available = (mi_row_ori > tile->mi_row_start);
  xd->left_available = (mi_col_ori > tile->mi_col_start);
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  // R/D setup.
  x->rddiv = cpi->rd.RDDIV;
  x->rdmult = cpi->rd.RDMULT;
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}
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static void set_segment_id_supertx(const AV1_COMP *const cpi,
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                                   MACROBLOCK *const x, const int mi_row,
                                   const int mi_col, const BLOCK_SIZE bsize) {
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  const AV1_COMMON *cm = &cpi->common;
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  const struct segmentation *seg = &cm->seg;
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  const int miw = AOMMIN(mi_size_wide[bsize], cm->mi_cols - mi_col);
  const int mih = AOMMIN(mi_size_high[bsize], cm->mi_rows - mi_row);
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  const int mi_offset = mi_row * cm->mi_stride + mi_col;
  MODE_INFO **const mip = cm->mi_grid_visible + mi_offset;
  int r, c;
  int seg_id_supertx = MAX_SEGMENTS;
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  if (!seg->enabled) {
    seg_id_supertx = 0;
  } else {
    // Find the minimum segment_id
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    for (r = 0; r < mih; r++)
      for (c = 0; c < miw; c++)
        seg_id_supertx =
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            AOMMIN(mip[r * cm->mi_stride + c]->mbmi.segment_id, seg_id_supertx);
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    assert(0 <= seg_id_supertx && seg_id_supertx < MAX_SEGMENTS);

    // Initialize plane quantisers
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    av1_init_plane_quantizers(cpi, x, seg_id_supertx);
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  }
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  // Assign the the segment_id back to segment_id_supertx
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  for (r = 0; r < mih; r++)
    for (c = 0; c < miw; c++)
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      mip[r * cm->mi_stride + c]->mbmi.segment_id_supertx = seg_id_supertx;
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}
#endif  // CONFIG_SUPERTX

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static void set_block_size(AV1_COMP *const cpi, MACROBLOCK *const x,
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                           MACROBLOCKD *const xd, int mi_row, int mi_col,
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                           BLOCK_SIZE bsize) {
  if (cpi->common.mi_cols > mi_col && cpi->common.mi_rows > mi_row) {
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    set_mode_info_offsets(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col);
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    xd->mi[0]->mbmi.sb_type = bsize;
  }
}

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static void set_vt_partitioning(AV1_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *const x,
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                                MACROBLOCKD *const xd, VAR_TREE *vt, int mi_row,
                                int mi_col, const int64_t *const threshold,
                                const BLOCK_SIZE *const bsize_min) {
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  AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  const int hbw = mi_size_wide[vt->bsize] / 2;
  const int hbh = mi_size_high[vt->bsize] / 2;
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  const int has_cols = mi_col + hbw < cm->mi_cols;
  const int has_rows = mi_row + hbh < cm->mi_rows;
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  if (mi_row >= cm->mi_rows || mi_col >= cm->mi_cols) return;
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  assert(vt->bsize >= BLOCK_8X8);

  assert(hbh == hbw);

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  if (vt->bsize == BLOCK_8X8 && cm->frame_type != KEY_FRAME) {
    set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, BLOCK_8X8);
    return;
  }

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  if (vt->force_split || (!has_cols && !has_rows)) goto split;
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  // For bsize=bsize_min (16x16/8x8 for 8x8/4x4 downsampling), select if
  // variance is below threshold, otherwise split will be selected.
  // No check for vert/horiz split as too few samples for variance.
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  if (vt->bsize == bsize_min[0]) {
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    if (has_cols && has_rows && vt->variances.none.variance < threshold[0]) {
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      set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, vt->bsize);
      return;
    } else {
      BLOCK_SIZE subsize = get_subsize(vt->bsize, PARTITION_SPLIT);
      set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, subsize);
      if (vt->bsize > BLOCK_8X8) {
        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col + hbw, subsize);
        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row + hbh, mi_col, subsize);
        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row + hbh, mi_col + hbw, subsize);
      }
      return;
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    }
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  } else if (vt->bsize > bsize_min[0]) {
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    // For key frame: take split for bsize above 32X32 or very high variance.
    if (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME &&
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        (vt->bsize > BLOCK_32X32 ||
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         vt->variances.none.variance > (threshold[0] << 4))) {
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      goto split;
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    }
    // If variance is low, take the bsize (no split).
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    if (has_cols && has_rows && vt->variances.none.variance < threshold[0]) {
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      set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, vt->bsize);
      return;
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    }

    // Check vertical split.
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    if (has_rows) {
      BLOCK_SIZE subsize = get_subsize(vt->bsize, PARTITION_VERT);
      if (vt->variances.vert[0].variance < threshold[0] &&
          vt->variances.vert[1].variance < threshold[0] &&
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          get_plane_block_size(subsize, &xd->plane[1]) < BLOCK_INVALID) {
        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, subsize);
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        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col + hbw, subsize);
        return;
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      }
    }
    // Check horizontal split.
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    if (has_cols) {
      BLOCK_SIZE subsize = get_subsize(vt->bsize, PARTITION_HORZ);
      if (vt->variances.horz[0].variance < threshold[0] &&
          vt->variances.horz[1].variance < threshold[0] &&
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          get_plane_block_size(subsize, &xd->plane[1]) < BLOCK_INVALID) {
        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row, mi_col, subsize);
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        set_block_size(cpi, x, xd, mi_row + hbh, mi_col, subsize);
        return;
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      }
    }
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  }
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split : {
  set_vt_partitioning(cpi, x, xd, vt->split[0], mi_row, mi_col, threshold + 1,
                      bsize_min + 1);
  set_vt_partitioning(cpi, x, xd, vt->split[1], mi_row, mi_col + hbw,
                      threshold + 1, bsize_min + 1);
  set_vt_partitioning(cpi, x, xd, vt->split[2], mi_row + hbh, mi_col,
                      threshold + 1, bsize_min + 1);
  set_vt_partitioning(cpi, x, xd, vt->split[3], mi_row + hbh, mi_col + hbw,
                      threshold + 1, bsize_min + 1);
  return;
}
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}

// Set the variance split thresholds for following the block sizes:
// 0 - threshold_64x64, 1 - threshold_32x32, 2 - threshold_16x16,
// 3 - vbp_threshold_8x8. vbp_threshold_8x8 (to split to 4x4 partition) is
// currently only used on key frame.
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static void set_vbp_thresholds(AV1_COMP *cpi, int64_t thresholds[], int q) {
  AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  const int is_key_frame = (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME);
  const int threshold_multiplier = is_key_frame ? 20 : 1;
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  const int64_t threshold_base =
      (int64_t)(threshold_multiplier * cpi->y_dequant[q][1]);
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  if (is_key_frame) {
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    thresholds[1] = threshold_base;
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    thresholds[2] = threshold_base >> 2;
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    thresholds[3] = threshold_base >> 2;
    thresholds[4] = threshold_base << 2;
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  } else {
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    thresholds[2] = threshold_base;
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    if (cm->width <= 352 && cm->height <= 288) {
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      thresholds[1] = threshold_base >> 2;
      thresholds[3] = threshold_base << 3;
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    } else {
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      thresholds[1] = threshold_base;
      thresholds[2] = (5 * threshold_base) >> 2;
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      if (cm->width >= 1920 && cm->height >= 1080)
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        thresholds[2] = (7 * threshold_base) >> 2;
      thresholds[3] = threshold_base << cpi->oxcf.speed;
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    }
  }
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  thresholds[0] = INT64_MIN;
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}

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void av1_set_variance_partition_thresholds(AV1_COMP *cpi, int q) {
  AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  SPEED_FEATURES *const sf = &cpi->sf;
  const int is_key_frame = (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME);
  if (sf->partition_search_type != VAR_BASED_PARTITION &&
      sf->partition_search_type != REFERENCE_PARTITION) {
    return;
  } else {
    set_vbp_thresholds(cpi, cpi->vbp_thresholds, q);
    // The thresholds below are not changed locally.
    if (is_key_frame) {
      cpi->vbp_threshold_sad = 0;
      cpi->vbp_bsize_min = BLOCK_8X8;
    } else {
      if (cm->width <= 352 && cm->height <= 288)
        cpi->vbp_threshold_sad = 100;
      else
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        cpi->vbp_threshold_sad = (cpi->y_dequant[q][1] << 1) > 1000
                                     ? (cpi->y_dequant[q][1] << 1)
                                     : 1000;
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      cpi->vbp_bsize_min = BLOCK_16X16;
    }
    cpi->vbp_threshold_minmax = 15 + (q >> 3);
  }
}

// Compute the minmax over the 8x8 subblocks.
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static int compute_minmax_8x8(const uint8_t *src, int src_stride,
                              const uint8_t *ref, int ref_stride,
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                              int highbd,
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#endif
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                              int pixels_wide, int pixels_high) {
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  int k;
  int minmax_max = 0;
  int minmax_min = 255;
  // Loop over the 4 8x8 subblocks.
  for (k = 0; k < 4; k++) {
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    const int x8_idx = ((k & 1) << 3);
    const int y8_idx = ((k >> 1) << 3);
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    int min = 0;
    int max = 0;
    if (x8_idx < pixels_wide && y8_idx < pixels_high) {
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      const int src_offset = y8_idx * src_stride + x8_idx;
      const int ref_offset = y8_idx * ref_stride + x8_idx;
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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      if (highbd) {
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        aom_highbd_minmax_8x8(src + src_offset, src_stride, ref + ref_offset,
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                              ref_stride, &min, &max);
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      } else {
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        aom_minmax_8x8(src + src_offset, src_stride, ref + ref_offset,
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                       ref_stride, &min, &max);
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      }
#else
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      aom_minmax_8x8(src + src_offset, src_stride, ref + ref_offset, ref_stride,
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                     &min, &max);
#endif
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      if ((max - min) > minmax_max) minmax_max = (max - min);
      if ((max - min) < minmax_min) minmax_min = (max - min);
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    }
  }
  return (minmax_max - minmax_min);
}

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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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static INLINE int avg_4x4(const uint8_t *const src, const int stride,
                          const int highbd) {
  if (highbd) {
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    return aom_highbd_avg_4x4(src, stride);
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  } else {
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    return aom_avg_4x4(src, stride);
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  }
}
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#else
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static INLINE int avg_4x4(const uint8_t *const src, const int stride) {
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  return aom_avg_4x4(src, stride);
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}
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#endif
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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static INLINE int avg_8x8(const uint8_t *const src, const int stride,
                          const int highbd) {
  if (highbd) {
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    return aom_highbd_avg_8x8(src, stride);
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  } else {
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    return aom_avg_8x8(src, stride);
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  }
}
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#else
static INLINE int avg_8x8(const uint8_t *const src, const int stride) {
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  return aom_avg_8x8(src, stride);
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}
#endif
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static void init_variance_tree(VAR_TREE *const vt,
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                               const int highbd,
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#endif
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                               BLOCK_SIZE bsize, BLOCK_SIZE leaf_size,
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                               const int width, const int height,
                               const uint8_t *const src, const int src_stride,
                               const uint8_t *const ref, const int ref_stride) {
  assert(bsize >= leaf_size);

  vt->bsize = bsize;

  vt->force_split = 0;

  vt->src = src;
  vt->src_stride = src_stride;
  vt->ref = ref;
  vt->ref_stride = ref_stride;

  vt->width = width;
  vt->height = height;

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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  vt->highbd = highbd;
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  if (bsize > leaf_size) {
    const BLOCK_SIZE subsize = get_subsize(bsize, PARTITION_SPLIT);
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    const int px = block_size_wide[subsize];
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    init_variance_tree(vt->split[0],
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                       highbd,
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
                       subsize, leaf_size, AOMMIN(px, width),
                       AOMMIN(px, height), src, src_stride, ref, ref_stride);
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    init_variance_tree(vt->split[1],
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                       highbd,
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
                       subsize, leaf_size, width - px, AOMMIN(px, height),
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                       src + px, src_stride, ref + px, ref_stride);
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    init_variance_tree(vt->split[2],
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                       highbd,
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
                       subsize, leaf_size, AOMMIN(px, width), height - px,
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                       src + px * src_stride, src_stride, ref + px * ref_stride,
                       ref_stride);
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    init_variance_tree(vt->split[3],
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                       highbd,
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                       subsize, leaf_size, width - px, height - px,
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                       src + px * src_stride + px, src_stride,
                       ref + px * ref_stride + px, ref_stride);
  }
}

// Fill the variance tree based on averaging pixel values (sub-sampling), at
// the leaf node size.
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static void fill_variance_tree(VAR_TREE *const vt, const BLOCK_SIZE leaf_size) {
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  if (vt->bsize > leaf_size) {
    fill_variance_tree(vt->split[0], leaf_size);
    fill_variance_tree(vt->split[1], leaf_size);
    fill_variance_tree(vt->split[2], leaf_size);
    fill_variance_tree(vt->split[3], leaf_size);
    fill_variance_node(vt);
  } else if (vt->width <= 0 || vt->height <= 0) {
    fill_variance(0, 0, 0, &vt->variances.none);
  } else {
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    unsigned int sse = 0;
    int sum = 0;
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    int src_avg;
    int ref_avg;
    assert(leaf_size == BLOCK_4X4 || leaf_size == BLOCK_8X8);
    if (leaf_size == BLOCK_4X4) {
      src_avg = avg_4x4(vt->src, vt->src_stride IF_HBD(, vt->highbd));
      ref_avg = avg_4x4(vt->ref, vt->ref_stride IF_HBD(, vt->highbd));
    } else {
      src_avg = avg_8x8(vt->src, vt->src_stride IF_HBD(, vt->highbd));
      ref_avg = avg_8x8(vt->ref, vt->ref_stride IF_HBD(, vt->highbd));
    }
    sum = src_avg - ref_avg;
    sse = sum * sum;
    fill_variance(sse, sum, 0, &vt->variances.none);
  }
}

static void refine_variance_tree(VAR_TREE *const vt, const int64_t threshold) {
  if (vt->bsize >= BLOCK_8X8) {
    if (vt->bsize == BLOCK_16X16) {
      if (vt->variances.none.variance <= threshold)
        return;
      else
        vt->force_split = 0;
    }

    refine_variance_tree(vt->split[0], threshold);
    refine_variance_tree(vt->split[1], threshold);
    refine_variance_tree(vt->split[2], threshold);
    refine_variance_tree(vt->split[3], threshold);

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    if (vt->bsize <= BLOCK_16X16) fill_variance_node(vt);
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  } else if (vt->width <= 0 || vt->height <= 0) {
    fill_variance(0, 0, 0, &vt->variances.none);
  } else {
    const int src_avg = avg_4x4(vt->src, vt->src_stride IF_HBD(, vt->highbd));
    const int ref_avg = avg_4x4(vt->ref, vt->ref_stride IF_HBD(, vt->highbd));
    const int sum = src_avg - ref_avg;
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    const unsigned int sse = sum * sum;
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    assert(vt->bsize == BLOCK_4X4);
    fill_variance(sse, sum, 0, &vt->variances.none);
  }
}

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static int check_split_key_frame(VAR_TREE *const vt, const int64_t threshold) {
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  if (vt->bsize == BLOCK_32X32) {
    vt->force_split = vt->variances.none.variance > threshold;
  } else {
    vt->force_split |= check_split_key_frame(vt->split[0], threshold);
    vt->force_split |= check_split_key_frame(vt->split[1], threshold);
    vt->force_split |= check_split_key_frame(vt->split[2], threshold);
    vt->force_split |= check_split_key_frame(vt->split[3], threshold);
  }
  return vt->force_split;
}

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static int check_split(AV1_COMP *const cpi, VAR_TREE *const vt,
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                       const int segment_id, const int64_t *const thresholds) {
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  if (vt->bsize == BLOCK_16X16) {
    vt->force_split = vt->variances.none.variance > thresholds[0];
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    if (!vt->force_split && vt->variances.none.variance > thresholds[-1] &&
        !cyclic_refresh_segment_id_boosted(segment_id)) {
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      // We have some nominal amount of 16x16 variance (based on average),
      // compute the minmax over the 8x8 sub-blocks, and if above threshold,
      // force split to 8x8 block for this 16x16 block.
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      int minmax =
          compute_minmax_8x8(vt->src, vt->src_stride, vt->ref, vt->ref_stride,
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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                             vt->highbd,
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#endif
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                             vt->width, vt->height);
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      vt->force_split = minmax > cpi->vbp_threshold_minmax;
    }
  } else {
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    vt->force_split |=
        check_split(cpi, vt->split[0], segment_id, thresholds + 1);
    vt->force_split |=
        check_split(cpi, vt->split[1], segment_id, thresholds + 1);
    vt->force_split |=
        check_split(cpi, vt->split[2], segment_id, thresholds + 1);
    vt->force_split |=
        check_split(cpi, vt->split[3], segment_id, thresholds + 1);
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    if (vt->bsize == BLOCK_32X32 && !vt->force_split) {
      vt->force_split = vt->variances.none.variance > thresholds[0];
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    }
  }
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  return vt->force_split;
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}

// This function chooses partitioning based on the variance between source and
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// reconstructed last (or golden), where variance is computed for down-sampled
// inputs.
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static void choose_partitioning(AV1_COMP *const cpi, ThreadData *const td,
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                                const TileInfo *const tile, MACROBLOCK *const x,
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                                const int mi_row, const int mi_col) {
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  AV1_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  VAR_TREE *const vt = td->var_root[cm->mib_size_log2 - MIN_MIB_SIZE_LOG2];
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#if CONFIG_DUAL_FILTER
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  int i;
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#endif
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  const uint8_t *src;
  const uint8_t *ref;
  int src_stride;
  int ref_stride;
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  int pixels_wide = MI_SIZE * mi_size_wide[cm->sb_size];
  int pixels_high = MI_SIZE * mi_size_high[cm->sb_size];
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  int64_t thresholds[5] = {
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    cpi->vbp_thresholds[0], cpi->vbp_thresholds[1], cpi->vbp_thresholds[2],
    cpi->vbp_thresholds[3], cpi->vbp_thresholds[4],
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  };
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  BLOCK_SIZE bsize_min[5] = { BLOCK_16X16, BLOCK_16X16, BLOCK_16X16,
                              cpi->vbp_bsize_min, BLOCK_8X8 };
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  const int start_level = cm->sb_size == BLOCK_64X64 ? 1 : 0;
  const int64_t *const thre = thresholds + start_level;
  const BLOCK_SIZE *const bmin = bsize_min + start_level;
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  const int is_key_frame = (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME);
  const int low_res = (cm->width <= 352 && cm->height <= 288);

  int segment_id = CR_SEGMENT_ID_BASE;
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  if (cpi->oxcf.aq_mode == CYCLIC_REFRESH_AQ && cm->seg.enabled) {
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    const uint8_t *const map =
        cm->seg.update_map ? cpi->segmentation_map : cm->last_frame_seg_map;
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    segment_id = get_segment_id(cm, map, cm->sb_size, mi_row, mi_col);