vp9_encodeframe.c 94 KB
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/*
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 *  Copyright (c) 2010 The WebM project authors. All Rights Reserved.
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 *
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 *  Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license
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 *  that can be found in the LICENSE file in the root of the source
 *  tree. An additional intellectual property rights grant can be found
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 *  in the file PATENTS.  All contributing project authors may
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 *  be found in the AUTHORS file in the root of the source tree.
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 */


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#include "./vpx_config.h"
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#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_encodeframe.h"
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#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_encodemb.h"
#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_encodemv.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_common.h"
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#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_onyx_int.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_extend.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_entropy.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_entropymode.h"
#include "vp9/common/vp9_quant_common.h"
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#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_segmentation.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_setupintrarecon.h"
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#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_encodeintra.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_reconinter.h"
#include "vp9/common/vp9_invtrans.h"
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#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_rdopt.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_findnearmv.h"
#include "vp9/common/vp9_reconintra.h"
#include "vp9/common/vp9_seg_common.h"
#include "vp9/encoder/vp9_tokenize.h"
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#include "vp9_rtcd.h"
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#include <stdio.h>
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#include <math.h>
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#include <limits.h>
#include "vpx_ports/vpx_timer.h"
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#include "vp9/common/vp9_pred_common.h"
#include "vp9/common/vp9_mvref_common.h"
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#define DBG_PRNT_SEGMAP 0
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// #define ENC_DEBUG
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#ifdef ENC_DEBUG
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int enc_debug = 0;
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#endif

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extern void select_interp_filter_type(VP9_COMP *cpi);

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static void encode_macroblock(VP9_COMP *cpi, TOKENEXTRA **t,
                              int recon_yoffset, int recon_uvoffset,
                              int output_enabled, int mb_row, int mb_col);
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static void encode_superblock32(VP9_COMP *cpi, TOKENEXTRA **t,
                                int recon_yoffset, int recon_uvoffset,
                                int output_enabled, int mb_row, int mb_col);

static void encode_superblock64(VP9_COMP *cpi, TOKENEXTRA **t,
                                int recon_yoffset, int recon_uvoffset,
                                int output_enabled, int mb_row, int mb_col);
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static void adjust_act_zbin(VP9_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x);
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#ifdef MODE_STATS
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unsigned int inter_y_modes[MB_MODE_COUNT];
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unsigned int inter_uv_modes[VP9_UV_MODES];
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unsigned int inter_b_modes[B_MODE_COUNT];
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unsigned int y_modes[VP9_YMODES];
unsigned int i8x8_modes[VP9_I8X8_MODES];
unsigned int uv_modes[VP9_UV_MODES];
unsigned int uv_modes_y[VP9_YMODES][VP9_UV_MODES];
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unsigned int b_modes[B_MODE_COUNT];
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#endif


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/* activity_avg must be positive, or flat regions could get a zero weight
 *  (infinite lambda), which confounds analysis.
 * This also avoids the need for divide by zero checks in
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 *  vp9_activity_masking().
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 */
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#define VP9_ACTIVITY_AVG_MIN (64)
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/* This is used as a reference when computing the source variance for the
 *  purposes of activity masking.
 * Eventually this should be replaced by custom no-reference routines,
 *  which will be faster.
 */
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static const uint8_t VP9_VAR_OFFS[16] = {
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  128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128
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};

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// Original activity measure from Tim T's code.
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static unsigned int tt_activity_measure(VP9_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x) {
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  unsigned int act;
  unsigned int sse;
  /* TODO: This could also be done over smaller areas (8x8), but that would
   *  require extensive changes elsewhere, as lambda is assumed to be fixed
   *  over an entire MB in most of the code.
   * Another option is to compute four 8x8 variances, and pick a single
   *  lambda using a non-linear combination (e.g., the smallest, or second
   *  smallest, etc.).
   */
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  act = vp9_variance16x16(x->src.y_buffer, x->src.y_stride, VP9_VAR_OFFS, 0,
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                          &sse);
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  act = act << 4;

  /* If the region is flat, lower the activity some more. */
  if (act < 8 << 12)
    act = act < 5 << 12 ? act : 5 << 12;

  return act;
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}

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// Stub for alternative experimental activity measures.
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static unsigned int alt_activity_measure(VP9_COMP *cpi,
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                                         MACROBLOCK *x, int use_dc_pred) {
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  return vp9_encode_intra(cpi, x, use_dc_pred);
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}


// Measure the activity of the current macroblock
// What we measure here is TBD so abstracted to this function
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#define ALT_ACT_MEASURE 1
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static unsigned int mb_activity_measure(VP9_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                        int mb_row, int mb_col) {
  unsigned int mb_activity;
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  if (ALT_ACT_MEASURE) {
    int use_dc_pred = (mb_col || mb_row) && (!mb_col || !mb_row);
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    // Or use and alternative.
    mb_activity = alt_activity_measure(cpi, x, use_dc_pred);
  } else {
    // Original activity measure from Tim T's code.
    mb_activity = tt_activity_measure(cpi, x);
  }
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  if (mb_activity < VP9_ACTIVITY_AVG_MIN)
    mb_activity = VP9_ACTIVITY_AVG_MIN;
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  return mb_activity;
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}

// Calculate an "average" mb activity value for the frame
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#define ACT_MEDIAN 0
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static void calc_av_activity(VP9_COMP *cpi, int64_t activity_sum) {
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#if ACT_MEDIAN
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  // Find median: Simple n^2 algorithm for experimentation
  {
    unsigned int median;
    unsigned int i, j;
    unsigned int *sortlist;
    unsigned int tmp;

    // Create a list to sort to
    CHECK_MEM_ERROR(sortlist,
    vpx_calloc(sizeof(unsigned int),
    cpi->common.MBs));

    // Copy map to sort list
    vpx_memcpy(sortlist, cpi->mb_activity_map,
    sizeof(unsigned int) * cpi->common.MBs);


    // Ripple each value down to its correct position
    for (i = 1; i < cpi->common.MBs; i ++) {
      for (j = i; j > 0; j --) {
        if (sortlist[j] < sortlist[j - 1]) {
          // Swap values
          tmp = sortlist[j - 1];
          sortlist[j - 1] = sortlist[j];
          sortlist[j] = tmp;
        } else
          break;
      }
    }
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    // Even number MBs so estimate median as mean of two either side.
    median = (1 + sortlist[cpi->common.MBs >> 1] +
              sortlist[(cpi->common.MBs >> 1) + 1]) >> 1;
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    cpi->activity_avg = median;
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    vpx_free(sortlist);
  }
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#else
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  // Simple mean for now
  cpi->activity_avg = (unsigned int)(activity_sum / cpi->common.MBs);
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#endif

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  if (cpi->activity_avg < VP9_ACTIVITY_AVG_MIN)
    cpi->activity_avg = VP9_ACTIVITY_AVG_MIN;
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  // Experimental code: return fixed value normalized for several clips
  if (ALT_ACT_MEASURE)
    cpi->activity_avg = 100000;
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}

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#define USE_ACT_INDEX   0
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#define OUTPUT_NORM_ACT_STATS   0
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#if USE_ACT_INDEX
// Calculate and activity index for each mb
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static void calc_activity_index(VP9_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x) {
  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  int mb_row, mb_col;
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  int64_t act;
  int64_t a;
  int64_t b;
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#if OUTPUT_NORM_ACT_STATS
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  FILE *f = fopen("norm_act.stt", "a");
  fprintf(f, "\n%12d\n", cpi->activity_avg);
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#endif

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  // Reset pointers to start of activity map
  x->mb_activity_ptr = cpi->mb_activity_map;
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  // Calculate normalized mb activity number.
  for (mb_row = 0; mb_row < cm->mb_rows; mb_row++) {
    // for each macroblock col in image
    for (mb_col = 0; mb_col < cm->mb_cols; mb_col++) {
      // Read activity from the map
      act = *(x->mb_activity_ptr);
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      // Calculate a normalized activity number
      a = act + 4 * cpi->activity_avg;
      b = 4 * act + cpi->activity_avg;
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      if (b >= a)
        *(x->activity_ptr) = (int)((b + (a >> 1)) / a) - 1;
      else
        *(x->activity_ptr) = 1 - (int)((a + (b >> 1)) / b);
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#if OUTPUT_NORM_ACT_STATS
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      fprintf(f, " %6d", *(x->mb_activity_ptr));
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#endif
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      // Increment activity map pointers
      x->mb_activity_ptr++;
    }
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#if OUTPUT_NORM_ACT_STATS
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    fprintf(f, "\n");
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#endif

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  }
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#if OUTPUT_NORM_ACT_STATS
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  fclose(f);
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#endif

}
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#endif
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// Loop through all MBs. Note activity of each, average activity and
// calculate a normalized activity for each
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static void build_activity_map(VP9_COMP *cpi) {
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  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
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  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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#if ALT_ACT_MEASURE
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  YV12_BUFFER_CONFIG *new_yv12 = &cm->yv12_fb[cm->new_fb_idx];
  int recon_yoffset;
  int recon_y_stride = new_yv12->y_stride;
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#endif

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  int mb_row, mb_col;
  unsigned int mb_activity;
  int64_t activity_sum = 0;
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  // for each macroblock row in image
  for (mb_row = 0; mb_row < cm->mb_rows; mb_row++) {
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#if ALT_ACT_MEASURE
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    // reset above block coeffs
    xd->up_available = (mb_row != 0);
    recon_yoffset = (mb_row * recon_y_stride * 16);
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#endif
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    // for each macroblock col in image
    for (mb_col = 0; mb_col < cm->mb_cols; mb_col++) {
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#if ALT_ACT_MEASURE
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      xd->dst.y_buffer = new_yv12->y_buffer + recon_yoffset;
      xd->left_available = (mb_col != 0);
      recon_yoffset += 16;
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#endif
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      // measure activity
      mb_activity = mb_activity_measure(cpi, x, mb_row, mb_col);
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      // Keep frame sum
      activity_sum += mb_activity;
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      // Store MB level activity details.
      *x->mb_activity_ptr = mb_activity;
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      // Increment activity map pointer
      x->mb_activity_ptr++;
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      // adjust to the next column of source macroblocks
      x->src.y_buffer += 16;
    }
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    // adjust to the next row of mbs
    x->src.y_buffer += 16 * x->src.y_stride - 16 * cm->mb_cols;
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#if ALT_ACT_MEASURE
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    // extend the recon for intra prediction
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    vp9_extend_mb_row(new_yv12, xd->dst.y_buffer + 16,
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                      xd->dst.u_buffer + 8, xd->dst.v_buffer + 8);
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#endif

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  }
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  // Calculate an "average" MB activity
  calc_av_activity(cpi, activity_sum);
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#if USE_ACT_INDEX
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  // Calculate an activity index number of each mb
  calc_activity_index(cpi, x);
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#endif

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}

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// Macroblock activity masking
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void vp9_activity_masking(VP9_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x) {
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#if USE_ACT_INDEX
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  x->rdmult += *(x->mb_activity_ptr) * (x->rdmult >> 2);
  x->errorperbit = x->rdmult * 100 / (110 * x->rddiv);
  x->errorperbit += (x->errorperbit == 0);
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#else
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  int64_t a;
  int64_t b;
  int64_t act = *(x->mb_activity_ptr);
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  // Apply the masking to the RD multiplier.
  a = act + (2 * cpi->activity_avg);
  b = (2 * act) + cpi->activity_avg;
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  x->rdmult = (unsigned int)(((int64_t)x->rdmult * b + (a >> 1)) / a);
  x->errorperbit = x->rdmult * 100 / (110 * x->rddiv);
  x->errorperbit += (x->errorperbit == 0);
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#endif
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  // Activity based Zbin adjustment
  adjust_act_zbin(cpi, x);
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}
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#if CONFIG_NEW_MVREF
static int vp9_cost_mv_ref_id(vp9_prob * ref_id_probs, int mv_ref_id) {
  int cost;

  // Encode the index for the MV reference.
  switch (mv_ref_id) {
    case 0:
      cost = vp9_cost_zero(ref_id_probs[0]);
      break;
    case 1:
      cost = vp9_cost_one(ref_id_probs[0]);
      cost += vp9_cost_zero(ref_id_probs[1]);
      break;
    case 2:
      cost = vp9_cost_one(ref_id_probs[0]);
      cost += vp9_cost_one(ref_id_probs[1]);
      cost += vp9_cost_zero(ref_id_probs[2]);
      break;
    case 3:
      cost = vp9_cost_one(ref_id_probs[0]);
      cost += vp9_cost_one(ref_id_probs[1]);
      cost += vp9_cost_one(ref_id_probs[2]);
      break;

      // TRAP.. This should not happen
    default:
      assert(0);
      break;
  }
  return cost;
}

// Estimate the cost of each coding the vector using each reference candidate
static unsigned int pick_best_mv_ref(MACROBLOCK *x,
                                     MV_REFERENCE_FRAME ref_frame,
                                     int_mv target_mv,
                                     int_mv * mv_ref_list,
                                     int_mv * best_ref) {
  int i;
  int best_index = 0;
  int cost, cost2;
  int zero_seen = (mv_ref_list[0].as_int) ? FALSE : TRUE;
  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
  int max_mv = MV_MAX;

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  cost = vp9_cost_mv_ref_id(xd->mb_mv_ref_probs[ref_frame], 0) +
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         vp9_mv_bit_cost(&target_mv, &mv_ref_list[0], x->nmvjointcost,
                         x->mvcost, 96, xd->allow_high_precision_mv);

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  for (i = 1; i < MAX_MV_REF_CANDIDATES; ++i) {
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    // If we see a 0,0 reference vector for a second time we have reached
    // the end of the list of valid candidate vectors.
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    if (!mv_ref_list[i].as_int) {
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      if (zero_seen)
        break;
      else
        zero_seen = TRUE;
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    }
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    // Check for cases where the reference choice would give rise to an
    // uncodable/out of range residual for row or col.
    if ((abs(target_mv.as_mv.row - mv_ref_list[i].as_mv.row) > max_mv) ||
        (abs(target_mv.as_mv.col - mv_ref_list[i].as_mv.col) > max_mv)) {
      continue;
    }

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    cost2 = vp9_cost_mv_ref_id(xd->mb_mv_ref_probs[ref_frame], i) +
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            vp9_mv_bit_cost(&target_mv, &mv_ref_list[i], x->nmvjointcost,
                            x->mvcost, 96, xd->allow_high_precision_mv);

    if (cost2 < cost) {
      cost = cost2;
      best_index = i;
    }
  }
  best_ref->as_int = mv_ref_list[best_index].as_int;

  return best_index;
}
#endif

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static void update_state(VP9_COMP *cpi,
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                         PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx, int block_size,
                         int output_enabled) {
  int i, x_idx, y;
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  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  MODE_INFO *mi = &ctx->mic;
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  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mode_info_context->mbmi;
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  int mb_mode = mi->mbmi.mode;
  int mb_mode_index = ctx->best_mode_index;
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  const int mis = cpi->common.mode_info_stride;
  int mb_block_size = 1 << mi->mbmi.sb_type;
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#if CONFIG_DEBUG
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  assert(mb_mode < MB_MODE_COUNT);
  assert(mb_mode_index < MAX_MODES);
  assert(mi->mbmi.ref_frame < MAX_REF_FRAMES);
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#endif
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  assert(mi->mbmi.sb_type == (block_size >> 5));
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  // Restore the coding context of the MB to that that was in place
  // when the mode was picked for it
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  for (y = 0; y < mb_block_size; y++) {
    for (x_idx = 0; x_idx < mb_block_size; x_idx++) {
      if ((xd->mb_to_right_edge >> 7) + mb_block_size > x_idx &&
          (xd->mb_to_bottom_edge >> 7) + mb_block_size > y) {
        MODE_INFO *mi_addr = xd->mode_info_context + x_idx + y * mis;

        vpx_memcpy(mi_addr, mi, sizeof(MODE_INFO));
      }
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    }
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  }
  if (block_size == 16) {
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    ctx->txfm_rd_diff[ALLOW_32X32] = ctx->txfm_rd_diff[ALLOW_16X16];
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  }
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  if (mb_mode == B_PRED) {
    for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
      xd->block[i].bmi.as_mode = xd->mode_info_context->bmi[i].as_mode;
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      assert(xd->block[i].bmi.as_mode.first < B_MODE_COUNT);
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    }
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  } else if (mb_mode == I8X8_PRED) {
    for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
      xd->block[i].bmi = xd->mode_info_context->bmi[i];
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    }
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  } else if (mb_mode == SPLITMV) {
    vpx_memcpy(x->partition_info, &ctx->partition_info,
               sizeof(PARTITION_INFO));

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    mbmi->mv[0].as_int = x->partition_info->bmi[15].mv.as_int;
    mbmi->mv[1].as_int = x->partition_info->bmi[15].second_mv.as_int;
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  }

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  x->skip = ctx->skip;
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  if (!output_enabled)
    return;

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  {
    int segment_id = mbmi->segment_id;
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    if (!vp9_segfeature_active(xd, segment_id, SEG_LVL_SKIP)) {
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      for (i = 0; i < NB_TXFM_MODES; i++) {
        cpi->rd_tx_select_diff[i] += ctx->txfm_rd_diff[i];
      }
    }
  }

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  if (cpi->common.frame_type == KEY_FRAME) {
    // Restore the coding modes to that held in the coding context
    // if (mb_mode == B_PRED)
    //    for (i = 0; i < 16; i++)
    //    {
    //        xd->block[i].bmi.as_mode =
    //                          xd->mode_info_context->bmi[i].as_mode;
    //        assert(xd->mode_info_context->bmi[i].as_mode < MB_MODE_COUNT);
    //    }
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#if CONFIG_INTERNAL_STATS
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    static const int kf_mode_index[] = {
      THR_DC /*DC_PRED*/,
      THR_V_PRED /*V_PRED*/,
      THR_H_PRED /*H_PRED*/,
      THR_D45_PRED /*D45_PRED*/,
      THR_D135_PRED /*D135_PRED*/,
      THR_D117_PRED /*D117_PRED*/,
      THR_D153_PRED /*D153_PRED*/,
      THR_D27_PRED /*D27_PRED*/,
      THR_D63_PRED /*D63_PRED*/,
      THR_TM /*TM_PRED*/,
      THR_I8X8_PRED /*I8X8_PRED*/,
      THR_B_PRED /*B_PRED*/,
    };
    cpi->mode_chosen_counts[kf_mode_index[mb_mode]]++;
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#endif
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  } else {
    /*
            // Reduce the activation RD thresholds for the best choice mode
            if ((cpi->rd_baseline_thresh[mb_mode_index] > 0) &&
                (cpi->rd_baseline_thresh[mb_mode_index] < (INT_MAX >> 2)))
            {
                int best_adjustment = (cpi->rd_thresh_mult[mb_mode_index] >> 2);
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                cpi->rd_thresh_mult[mb_mode_index] =
                        (cpi->rd_thresh_mult[mb_mode_index]
                         >= (MIN_THRESHMULT + best_adjustment)) ?
                                cpi->rd_thresh_mult[mb_mode_index] - best_adjustment :
                                MIN_THRESHMULT;
                cpi->rd_threshes[mb_mode_index] =
                        (cpi->rd_baseline_thresh[mb_mode_index] >> 7)
                        * cpi->rd_thresh_mult[mb_mode_index];
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            }
    */
    // Note how often each mode chosen as best
    cpi->mode_chosen_counts[mb_mode_index]++;
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    if (mbmi->mode == SPLITMV || mbmi->mode == NEWMV) {
      int_mv best_mv, best_second_mv;
      MV_REFERENCE_FRAME rf = mbmi->ref_frame;
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#if CONFIG_NEW_MVREF
      unsigned int best_index;
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      MV_REFERENCE_FRAME sec_ref_frame = mbmi->second_ref_frame;
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#endif
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      best_mv.as_int = ctx->best_ref_mv.as_int;
      best_second_mv.as_int = ctx->second_best_ref_mv.as_int;
      if (mbmi->mode == NEWMV) {
        best_mv.as_int = mbmi->ref_mvs[rf][0].as_int;
        best_second_mv.as_int = mbmi->ref_mvs[mbmi->second_ref_frame][0].as_int;
#if CONFIG_NEW_MVREF
        best_index = pick_best_mv_ref(x, rf, mbmi->mv[0],
                                      mbmi->ref_mvs[rf], &best_mv);
        mbmi->best_index = best_index;
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        ++cpi->mb_mv_ref_count[rf][best_index];
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        if (mbmi->second_ref_frame > 0) {
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          unsigned int best_index;
          best_index =
              pick_best_mv_ref(x, sec_ref_frame, mbmi->mv[1],
                               mbmi->ref_mvs[sec_ref_frame],
                               &best_second_mv);
          mbmi->best_second_index = best_index;
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          ++cpi->mb_mv_ref_count[sec_ref_frame][best_index];
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        }
#endif
      }
      mbmi->best_mv.as_int = best_mv.as_int;
      mbmi->best_second_mv.as_int = best_second_mv.as_int;
      vp9_update_nmv_count(cpi, x, &best_mv, &best_second_mv);
    }
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#if CONFIG_COMP_INTERINTRA_PRED
    if (mbmi->mode >= NEARESTMV && mbmi->mode < SPLITMV &&
        mbmi->second_ref_frame <= INTRA_FRAME) {
      if (mbmi->second_ref_frame == INTRA_FRAME) {
        ++cpi->interintra_count[1];
        ++cpi->ymode_count[mbmi->interintra_mode];
#if SEPARATE_INTERINTRA_UV
        ++cpi->y_uv_mode_count[mbmi->interintra_mode][mbmi->interintra_uv_mode];
#endif
      } else {
        ++cpi->interintra_count[0];
      }
    }
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#endif
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    if (cpi->common.mcomp_filter_type == SWITCHABLE &&
        mbmi->mode >= NEARESTMV &&
        mbmi->mode <= SPLITMV) {
      ++cpi->switchable_interp_count
          [vp9_get_pred_context(&cpi->common, xd, PRED_SWITCHABLE_INTERP)]
          [vp9_switchable_interp_map[mbmi->interp_filter]];
    }
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    cpi->prediction_error += ctx->distortion;
    cpi->intra_error += ctx->intra_error;
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    cpi->rd_comp_pred_diff[SINGLE_PREDICTION_ONLY] += ctx->single_pred_diff;
    cpi->rd_comp_pred_diff[COMP_PREDICTION_ONLY]   += ctx->comp_pred_diff;
    cpi->rd_comp_pred_diff[HYBRID_PREDICTION]      += ctx->hybrid_pred_diff;
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  }
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}

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static unsigned find_seg_id(uint8_t *buf, int block_size,
                            int start_y, int height, int start_x, int width) {
  const int end_x = MIN(start_x + block_size, width);
  const int end_y = MIN(start_y + block_size, height);
  int x, y;
  unsigned seg_id = -1;

  buf += width * start_y;
  for (y = start_y; y < end_y; y++, buf += width) {
    for (x = start_x; x < end_x; x++) {
      seg_id = MIN(seg_id, buf[x]);
    }
  }

  return seg_id;
}

static void set_offsets(VP9_COMP *cpi,
                        int mb_row, int mb_col, int block_size,
                        int *ref_yoffset, int *ref_uvoffset) {
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi;
  const int dst_fb_idx = cm->new_fb_idx;
  const int recon_y_stride = cm->yv12_fb[dst_fb_idx].y_stride;
  const int recon_uv_stride = cm->yv12_fb[dst_fb_idx].uv_stride;
  const int recon_yoffset = 16 * mb_row * recon_y_stride + 16 * mb_col;
  const int recon_uvoffset = 8 * mb_row * recon_uv_stride + 8 * mb_col;
  const int src_y_stride = x->src.y_stride;
  const int src_uv_stride = x->src.uv_stride;
  const int src_yoffset = 16 * mb_row * src_y_stride + 16 * mb_col;
  const int src_uvoffset = 8 * mb_row * src_uv_stride + 8 * mb_col;
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  const int ref_fb_idx = cm->active_ref_idx[cpi->lst_fb_idx];
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  const int ref_y_stride = cm->yv12_fb[ref_fb_idx].y_stride;
  const int ref_uv_stride = cm->yv12_fb[ref_fb_idx].uv_stride;
  const int idx_map = mb_row * cm->mb_cols + mb_col;
  const int idx_str = xd->mode_info_stride * mb_row + mb_col;

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#ifdef ENC_DEBUG
  enc_debug = (cpi->common.current_video_frame == 2 &&
               mb_row == 4 && mb_col == 5);
#endif
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  // entropy context structures
  xd->above_context = cm->above_context + mb_col;
  xd->left_context  = cm->left_context + (mb_row & 3);

  // GF active flags data structure
  x->gf_active_ptr = (signed char *)&cpi->gf_active_flags[idx_map];

  // Activity map pointer
  x->mb_activity_ptr = &cpi->mb_activity_map[idx_map];
  x->active_ptr = cpi->active_map + idx_map;

  /* pointers to mode info contexts */
  x->partition_info          = x->pi + idx_str;
  xd->mode_info_context      = cm->mi + idx_str;
  mbmi = &xd->mode_info_context->mbmi;
  xd->prev_mode_info_context = cm->prev_mi + idx_str;

  // Set up destination pointers
  xd->dst.y_buffer = cm->yv12_fb[dst_fb_idx].y_buffer + recon_yoffset;
  xd->dst.u_buffer = cm->yv12_fb[dst_fb_idx].u_buffer + recon_uvoffset;
  xd->dst.v_buffer = cm->yv12_fb[dst_fb_idx].v_buffer + recon_uvoffset;

  /* Set up limit values for MV components to prevent them from
   * extending beyond the UMV borders assuming 16x16 block size */
  x->mv_row_min = -((mb_row * 16) + VP9BORDERINPIXELS - VP9_INTERP_EXTEND);
  x->mv_col_min = -((mb_col * 16) + VP9BORDERINPIXELS - VP9_INTERP_EXTEND);
  x->mv_row_max = ((cm->mb_rows - mb_row) * 16 +
                   (VP9BORDERINPIXELS - block_size - VP9_INTERP_EXTEND));
  x->mv_col_max = ((cm->mb_cols - mb_col) * 16 +
                   (VP9BORDERINPIXELS - block_size - VP9_INTERP_EXTEND));

  // Set up distance of MB to edge of frame in 1/8th pel units
  block_size >>= 4;  // in macroblock units
  assert(!(mb_col & (block_size - 1)) && !(mb_row & (block_size - 1)));
  xd->mb_to_top_edge    = -((mb_row * 16) << 3);
  xd->mb_to_left_edge   = -((mb_col * 16) << 3);
  xd->mb_to_bottom_edge = ((cm->mb_rows - block_size - mb_row) * 16) << 3;
  xd->mb_to_right_edge  = ((cm->mb_cols - block_size - mb_col) * 16) << 3;

  // Are edges available for intra prediction?
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  xd->up_available    = (mb_row != 0);
  xd->left_available  = (mb_col > cm->cur_tile_mb_col_start);
  xd->right_available = (mb_col + block_size < cm->cur_tile_mb_col_end);
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  /* Reference buffer offsets */
  *ref_yoffset  = (mb_row * ref_y_stride * 16) + (mb_col * 16);
  *ref_uvoffset = (mb_row * ref_uv_stride * 8) + (mb_col *  8);

  /* set up source buffers */
  x->src.y_buffer = cpi->Source->y_buffer + src_yoffset;
  x->src.u_buffer = cpi->Source->u_buffer + src_uvoffset;
  x->src.v_buffer = cpi->Source->v_buffer + src_uvoffset;

  /* R/D setup */
  x->rddiv = cpi->RDDIV;
  x->rdmult = cpi->RDMULT;

  /* segment ID */
  if (xd->segmentation_enabled) {
    if (xd->update_mb_segmentation_map) {
      mbmi->segment_id = find_seg_id(cpi->segmentation_map, block_size,
                                     mb_row, cm->mb_rows, mb_col, cm->mb_cols);
    } else {
      mbmi->segment_id = find_seg_id(cm->last_frame_seg_map, block_size,
                                     mb_row, cm->mb_rows, mb_col, cm->mb_cols);
    }
    assert(mbmi->segment_id <= 3);
    vp9_mb_init_quantizer(cpi, x);

    if (xd->segmentation_enabled && cpi->seg0_cnt > 0 &&
        !vp9_segfeature_active(xd, 0, SEG_LVL_REF_FRAME) &&
        vp9_segfeature_active(xd, 1, SEG_LVL_REF_FRAME) &&
        vp9_check_segref(xd, 1, INTRA_FRAME)  +
        vp9_check_segref(xd, 1, LAST_FRAME)   +
        vp9_check_segref(xd, 1, GOLDEN_FRAME) +
        vp9_check_segref(xd, 1, ALTREF_FRAME) == 1) {
      cpi->seg0_progress = (cpi->seg0_idx << 16) / cpi->seg0_cnt;
    } else {
      const int y = mb_row & ~3;
      const int x = mb_col & ~3;
      const int p16 = ((mb_row & 1) << 1) +  (mb_col & 1);
      const int p32 = ((mb_row & 2) << 2) + ((mb_col & 2) << 1);
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      const int tile_progress = cm->cur_tile_mb_col_start * cm->mb_rows;
      const int mb_cols = cm->cur_tile_mb_col_end - cm->cur_tile_mb_col_start;
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      cpi->seg0_progress =
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          ((y * mb_cols + x * 4 + p32 + p16 + tile_progress) << 16) / cm->MBs;
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    }
  } else {
    mbmi->segment_id = 0;
  }
}

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static void pick_mb_modes(VP9_COMP *cpi,
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                          int mb_row,
                          int mb_col,
                          TOKENEXTRA **tp,
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                          int *totalrate,
                          int *totaldist) {
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  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  int i;
  int recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset;
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT_PLANES left_context[2];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT_PLANES above_context[2];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT_PLANES *initial_above_context_ptr = cm->above_context
                                                      + mb_col;

  /* Function should not modify L & A contexts; save and restore on exit */
  vpx_memcpy(left_context,
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             cm->left_context + (mb_row & 2),
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             sizeof(left_context));
  vpx_memcpy(above_context,
             initial_above_context_ptr,
             sizeof(above_context));

  /* Encode MBs in raster order within the SB */
  for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
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    const int x_idx = i & 1, y_idx = i >> 1;
    MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi;
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    if ((mb_row + y_idx >= cm->mb_rows) || (mb_col + x_idx >= cm->mb_cols)) {
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      // MB lies outside frame, move on
      continue;
    }
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    // Index of the MB in the SB 0..3
    xd->mb_index = i;
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    set_offsets(cpi, mb_row + y_idx, mb_col + x_idx, 16,
                &recon_yoffset, &recon_uvoffset);
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    if (cpi->oxcf.tuning == VP8_TUNE_SSIM)
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      vp9_activity_masking(cpi, x);
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    mbmi = &xd->mode_info_context->mbmi;
    mbmi->sb_type = BLOCK_SIZE_MB16X16;
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    // Find best coding mode & reconstruct the MB so it is available
    // as a predictor for MBs that follow in the SB
    if (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME) {
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      int r, d;
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#ifdef ENC_DEBUG
      if (enc_debug)
        printf("intra pick_mb_modes %d %d\n", mb_row, mb_col);
#endif
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      vp9_rd_pick_intra_mode(cpi, x, &r, &d);
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      *totalrate += r;
      *totaldist += d;
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      // Dummy encode, do not do the tokenization
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      encode_macroblock(cpi, tp, recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset, 0,
                        mb_row + y_idx, mb_col + x_idx);
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      // Note the encoder may have changed the segment_id
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      // Save the coding context
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      vpx_memcpy(&x->mb_context[xd->sb_index][i].mic, xd->mode_info_context,
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                 sizeof(MODE_INFO));
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    } else {
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      int seg_id, r, d;
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#ifdef ENC_DEBUG
      if (enc_debug)
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        printf("inter pick_mb_modes %d %d\n", mb_row, mb_col);
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#endif
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      vp9_pick_mode_inter_macroblock(cpi, x, recon_yoffset,
                                     recon_uvoffset, &r, &d);
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      *totalrate += r;
      *totaldist += d;
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      // Dummy encode, do not do the tokenization
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      encode_macroblock(cpi, tp, recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset, 0,
                        mb_row + y_idx, mb_col + x_idx);
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      seg_id = mbmi->segment_id;
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      if (cpi->mb.e_mbd.segmentation_enabled && seg_id == 0) {
        cpi->seg0_idx++;
      }
      if (!xd->segmentation_enabled ||
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          !vp9_segfeature_active(xd, seg_id, SEG_LVL_REF_FRAME) ||
          vp9_check_segref(xd, seg_id, INTRA_FRAME)  +
          vp9_check_segref(xd, seg_id, LAST_FRAME)   +
          vp9_check_segref(xd, seg_id, GOLDEN_FRAME) +
          vp9_check_segref(xd, seg_id, ALTREF_FRAME) > 1) {
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        // Get the prediction context and status
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        int pred_flag = vp9_get_pred_flag(xd, PRED_REF);
        int pred_context = vp9_get_pred_context(cm, xd, PRED_REF);
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        // Count prediction success
        cpi->ref_pred_count[pred_context][pred_flag]++;
      }
    }
  }

  /* Restore L & A coding context to those in place on entry */
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  vpx_memcpy(cm->left_context + (mb_row & 2),
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             left_context,
             sizeof(left_context));
  vpx_memcpy(initial_above_context_ptr,
             above_context,
             sizeof(above_context));
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}

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static void pick_sb_modes(VP9_COMP *cpi,
                          int mb_row,
                          int mb_col,
                          TOKENEXTRA **tp,
                          int *totalrate,
                          int *totaldist) {
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  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  int recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset;

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  set_offsets(cpi, mb_row, mb_col, 32, &recon_yoffset, &recon_uvoffset);
  xd->mode_info_context->mbmi.sb_type = BLOCK_SIZE_SB32X32;
  if (cpi->oxcf.tuning == VP8_TUNE_SSIM)
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    vp9_activity_masking(cpi, x);
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  /* Find best coding mode & reconstruct the MB so it is available
   * as a predictor for MBs that follow in the SB */
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  if (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME) {
    vp9_rd_pick_intra_mode_sb32(cpi, x,
                                totalrate,
                                totaldist);
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    /* Save the coding context */
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    vpx_memcpy(&x->sb32_context[xd->sb_index].mic, xd->mode_info_context,
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               sizeof(MODE_INFO));
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  } else {
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    vp9_rd_pick_inter_mode_sb32(cpi, x,
                                recon_yoffset,
                                recon_uvoffset,
                                totalrate,
                                totaldist);
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  }
}

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static void pick_sb64_modes(VP9_COMP *cpi,
                            int mb_row,
                            int mb_col,
                            TOKENEXTRA **tp,
                            int *totalrate,
                            int *totaldist) {
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  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  int recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset;

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  set_offsets(cpi, mb_row, mb_col, 64, &recon_yoffset, &recon_uvoffset);
  xd->mode_info_context->mbmi.sb_type = BLOCK_SIZE_SB64X64;
  if (cpi->oxcf.tuning == VP8_TUNE_SSIM)
    vp9_activity_masking(cpi, x);
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  /* Find best coding mode & reconstruct the MB so it is available
   * as a predictor for MBs that follow in the SB */
  if (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME) {
    vp9_rd_pick_intra_mode_sb64(cpi, x,
                                totalrate,
                                totaldist);
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    /* Save the coding context */
    vpx_memcpy(&x->sb64_context.mic, xd->mode_info_context,
               sizeof(MODE_INFO));
  } else {
    vp9_rd_pick_inter_mode_sb64(cpi, x,
                                recon_yoffset,
                                recon_uvoffset,
                                totalrate,
                                totaldist);
  }
}
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static void update_stats(VP9_COMP *cpi) {
  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MODE_INFO *mi = xd->mode_info_context;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &mi->mbmi;
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  if (cm->frame_type == KEY_FRAME) {
#ifdef MODE_STATS
    y_modes[mbmi->mode]++;
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#endif
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  } else {
    int segment_id, seg_ref_active;
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    if (mbmi->ref_frame) {
      int pred_context = vp9_get_pred_context(cm, xd, PRED_COMP);
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      if (mbmi->second_ref_frame <= INTRA_FRAME)
        cpi->single_pred_count[pred_context]++;
      else
        cpi->comp_pred_count[pred_context]++;
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    }
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#ifdef MODE_STATS
    inter_y_modes[mbmi->mode]++;
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    if (mbmi->mode == SPLITMV) {
      int b;
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      for (b = 0; b < x->partition_info->count; b++) {
        inter_b_modes[x->partition_info->bmi[b].mode]++;
      }
    }
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#endif
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    // If we have just a single reference frame coded for a segment then
    // exclude from the reference frame counts used to work out
    // probabilities. NOTE: At the moment we dont support custom trees
    // for the reference frame coding for each segment but this is a
    // possible future action.
    segment_id = mbmi->segment_id;
    seg_ref_active = vp9_segfeature_active(xd, segment_id,
                                           SEG_LVL_REF_FRAME);
    if (!seg_ref_active ||
        ((vp9_check_segref(xd, segment_id, INTRA_FRAME) +
          vp9_check_segref(xd, segment_id, LAST_FRAME) +
          vp9_check_segref(xd, segment_id, GOLDEN_FRAME) +
          vp9_check_segref(xd, segment_id, ALTREF_FRAME)) > 1)) {
      cpi->count_mb_ref_frame_usage[mbmi->ref_frame]++;
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    }
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    // Count of last ref frame 0,0 usage
    if ((mbmi->mode == ZEROMV) && (mbmi->ref_frame == LAST_FRAME))
      cpi->inter_zz_count++;
  }
}
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static void encode_sb(VP9_COMP *cpi,
                      int mb_row,
                      int mb_col,
                      int output_enabled,
                      TOKENEXTRA **tp, int is_sb) {
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  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
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  int recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset;
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  cpi->sb32_count[is_sb]++;
  if (is_sb) {
    set_offsets(cpi, mb_row, mb_col, 32, &recon_yoffset, &recon_uvoffset);
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    update_state(cpi, &x->sb32_context[xd->sb_index], 32, output_enabled);
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    encode_superblock32(cpi, tp, recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset,
                        output_enabled, mb_row, mb_col);
    if (output_enabled)
      update_stats(cpi);
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    if (output_enabled) {
      (*tp)->Token = EOSB_TOKEN;
      (*tp)++;
      if (mb_row < cm->mb_rows)
        cpi->tplist[mb_row].stop = *tp;
    }
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  } else {
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    int i;
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    for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
      const int x_idx = i & 1, y_idx = i >> 1;
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      if ((mb_row + y_idx >= cm->mb_rows) || (mb_col + x_idx >= cm->mb_cols)) {
        // MB lies outside frame, move on
        continue;
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      }

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      set_offsets(cpi, mb_row + y_idx, mb_col + x_idx, 16,
                  &recon_yoffset, &recon_uvoffset);
      xd->mb_index = i;
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      update_state(cpi, &x->mb_context[xd->sb_index][i], 16, output_enabled);
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      if (cpi->oxcf.tuning == VP8_TUNE_SSIM)
        vp9_activity_masking(cpi, x);
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      encode_macroblock(cpi, tp, recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset,
                        output_enabled, mb_row + y_idx, mb_col + x_idx);
      if (output_enabled)
        update_stats(cpi);
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      if (output_enabled) {
        (*tp)->Token = EOSB_TOKEN;
        (*tp)++;
        if (mb_row + y_idx < cm->mb_rows)
          cpi->tplist[mb_row + y_idx].stop = *tp;
      }
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    }
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  }
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  // debug output
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#if DBG_PRNT_SEGMAP
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  {
    FILE *statsfile;
    statsfile = fopen("segmap2.stt", "a");
    fprintf(statsfile, "\n");
    fclose(statsfile);
  }
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#endif
}

static void encode_sb64(VP9_COMP *cpi,
                        int mb_row,
                        int mb_col,
                        TOKENEXTRA **tp, int is_sb[4]) {
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  VP9_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = &cpi->mb;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;

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  cpi->sb64_count[is_sb[0] == 2]++;
  if (is_sb[0] == 2) {
    int recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset;

    set_offsets(cpi, mb_row, mb_col, 64, &recon_yoffset, &recon_uvoffset);
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    update_state(cpi, &x->sb64_context, 64, 1);
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    encode_superblock64(cpi, tp, recon_yoffset, recon_uvoffset,
                        1, mb_row, mb_col);
    update_stats(cpi);

    (*tp)->Token = EOSB_TOKEN;
    (*tp)++;
    if (mb_row < cm->mb_rows)
      cpi->tplist[mb_row].stop = *tp;
  } else {
    int i;

    for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
      const int x_idx = i & 1, y_idx = i >> 1;

      if (mb_row + y_idx * 2 >= cm->mb_rows ||
          mb_col + x_idx * 2 >= cm->mb_cols) {
        // MB lies outside frame, move on
        continue;
      }
      xd->sb_index = i;
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      encode_sb(cpi, mb_row + 2 * y_idx, mb_col + 2 * x_idx, 1, tp,
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                is_sb[i]);
    }
  }
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