rdopt.c 233 KB
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/*
 *  Copyright (c) 2010 The WebM project authors. All Rights Reserved.
 *
 *  Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license
 *  that can be found in the LICENSE file in the root of the source
 *  tree. An additional intellectual property rights grant can be found
 *  in the file PATENTS.  All contributing project authors may
 *  be found in the AUTHORS file in the root of the source tree.
 */

#include <assert.h>
#include <math.h>

#include "./vp10_rtcd.h"
#include "./vpx_dsp_rtcd.h"

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#include "vpx_dsp/vpx_dsp_common.h"
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#include "vpx_mem/vpx_mem.h"
#include "vpx_ports/mem.h"
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#include "vpx_ports/system_state.h"
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#include "vp10/common/common.h"
#include "vp10/common/entropy.h"
#include "vp10/common/entropymode.h"
#include "vp10/common/idct.h"
#include "vp10/common/mvref_common.h"
#include "vp10/common/pred_common.h"
#include "vp10/common/quant_common.h"
#include "vp10/common/reconinter.h"
#include "vp10/common/reconintra.h"
#include "vp10/common/scan.h"
#include "vp10/common/seg_common.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/cost.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/encodemb.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/encodemv.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/encoder.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/hybrid_fwd_txfm.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/mcomp.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/palette.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/quantize.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/ratectrl.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/rd.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/rdopt.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/aq_variance.h"
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS

#define LAST_FRAME_MODE_MASK    ((1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST2_FRAME) | (1 << INTRA_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST3_FRAME) | (1 << LAST4_FRAME))
#define LAST2_FRAME_MODE_MASK   ((1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << INTRA_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST3_FRAME) | (1 << LAST4_FRAME))
#define LAST3_FRAME_MODE_MASK   ((1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << INTRA_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST2_FRAME) | (1 << LAST4_FRAME))
#define LAST4_FRAME_MODE_MASK   ((1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << INTRA_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST2_FRAME) | (1 << LAST3_FRAME))
#define GOLDEN_FRAME_MODE_MASK  ((1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST2_FRAME) | (1 << INTRA_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST3_FRAME) | (1 << LAST4_FRAME))
#define ALT_REF_MODE_MASK       ((1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST2_FRAME) | (1 << INTRA_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << LAST3_FRAME) | (1 << LAST4_FRAME))

#else

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#define LAST_FRAME_MODE_MASK    ((1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << INTRA_FRAME))
#define GOLDEN_FRAME_MODE_MASK  ((1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << INTRA_FRAME))
#define ALT_REF_MODE_MASK       ((1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << INTRA_FRAME))

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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS

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#define SECOND_REF_FRAME_MASK   ((1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | 0x01)

#define MIN_EARLY_TERM_INDEX    3
#define NEW_MV_DISCOUNT_FACTOR  8

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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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const double ext_tx_th = 0.98;
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#endif

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typedef struct {
  PREDICTION_MODE mode;
  MV_REFERENCE_FRAME ref_frame[2];
} MODE_DEFINITION;

typedef struct {
  MV_REFERENCE_FRAME ref_frame[2];
} REF_DEFINITION;

struct rdcost_block_args {
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
  const VP10_COMP *cpi;
#endif
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  MACROBLOCK *x;
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT t_above[16];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT t_left[16];
  int this_rate;
  int64_t this_dist;
  int64_t this_sse;
  int64_t this_rd;
  int64_t best_rd;
  int exit_early;
  int use_fast_coef_costing;
  const scan_order *so;
  uint8_t skippable;
};

#define LAST_NEW_MV_INDEX 6
static const MODE_DEFINITION vp10_mode_order[MAX_MODES] = {
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST2_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST3_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST4_FRAME,  NONE}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {NEARESTMV, {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {NEARESTMV, {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},

  {DC_PRED,   {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},

  {NEWMV,     {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {NEWMV,     {LAST2_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST3_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST4_FRAME,  NONE}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {NEWMV,     {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {NEWMV,     {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},

  {NEARMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {NEARMV,    {LAST2_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {NEARMV,    {LAST3_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {NEARMV,    {LAST4_FRAME,  NONE}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {NEARMV,    {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {NEARMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},

  {ZEROMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {ZEROMV,    {LAST2_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {ZEROMV,    {LAST3_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {ZEROMV,    {LAST4_FRAME,  NONE}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {ZEROMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},
  {ZEROMV,    {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},

  {NEARESTMV, {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST2_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST3_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST4_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {NEARESTMV, {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},

  {TM_PRED,   {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},

  {NEARMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {NEARMV,    {LAST2_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST2_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEARMV,    {LAST3_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST3_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEARMV,    {LAST4_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST4_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {NEARMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},

  {ZEROMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {ZEROMV,    {LAST3_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {ZEROMV,    {LAST2_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {ZEROMV,    {LAST4_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {ZEROMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},

  {H_PRED,    {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {V_PRED,    {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D135_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D207_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D153_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D63_PRED,  {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D117_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D45_PRED,  {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
};

static const REF_DEFINITION vp10_ref_order[MAX_REFS] = {
  {{LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {{LAST2_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {{LAST3_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {{LAST4_FRAME,  NONE}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {{GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},
  {{ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {{LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
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#if CONFIG_EXT_REFS
  {{LAST2_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {{LAST3_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {{LAST4_FRAME,  ALTREF_FRAME}},
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_REFS
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  {{GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {{INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
};

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static INLINE int write_uniform_cost(int n, int v) {
  int l = get_unsigned_bits(n), m = (1 << l) - n;
  if (l == 0)
    return 0;
  if (v < m)
    return (l - 1) * vp10_cost_bit(128, 0);
  else
    return l * vp10_cost_bit(128, 0);
}

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static void swap_block_ptr(MACROBLOCK *x, PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx,
                           int m, int n, int min_plane, int max_plane) {
  int i;

  for (i = min_plane; i < max_plane; ++i) {
    struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[i];
    struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &x->e_mbd.plane[i];

    p->coeff    = ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][m];
    p->qcoeff   = ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][m];
    pd->dqcoeff = ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][m];
    p->eobs     = ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][m];

    ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][m]   = ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][n];
    ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][m]  = ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][n];
    ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][m] = ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][n];
    ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][m]    = ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][n];

    ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][n]   = p->coeff;
    ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][n]  = p->qcoeff;
    ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][n] = pd->dqcoeff;
    ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][n]    = p->eobs;
  }
}

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static void model_rd_for_sb(VP10_COMP *cpi, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
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                            MACROBLOCK *x, MACROBLOCKD *xd,
                            int *out_rate_sum, int64_t *out_dist_sum,
                            int *skip_txfm_sb, int64_t *skip_sse_sb) {
  // Note our transform coeffs are 8 times an orthogonal transform.
  // Hence quantizer step is also 8 times. To get effective quantizer
  // we need to divide by 8 before sending to modeling function.
  int i;
  int64_t rate_sum = 0;
  int64_t dist_sum = 0;
  const int ref = xd->mi[0]->mbmi.ref_frame[0];
  unsigned int sse;
  unsigned int var = 0;
  unsigned int sum_sse = 0;
  int64_t total_sse = 0;
  int skip_flag = 1;
  const int shift = 6;
  int rate;
  int64_t dist;
  const int dequant_shift =
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) ?
          xd->bd - 5 :
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
          3;

  x->pred_sse[ref] = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < MAX_MB_PLANE; ++i) {
    struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[i];
    struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[i];
    const BLOCK_SIZE bs = get_plane_block_size(bsize, pd);
    const TX_SIZE max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bs];
    const BLOCK_SIZE unit_size = txsize_to_bsize[max_tx_size];
    const int64_t dc_thr = p->quant_thred[0] >> shift;
    const int64_t ac_thr = p->quant_thred[1] >> shift;
    // The low thresholds are used to measure if the prediction errors are
    // low enough so that we can skip the mode search.
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    const int64_t low_dc_thr = VPXMIN(50, dc_thr >> 2);
    const int64_t low_ac_thr = VPXMIN(80, ac_thr >> 2);
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    int bw = 1 << (b_width_log2_lookup[bs] - b_width_log2_lookup[unit_size]);
    int bh = 1 << (b_height_log2_lookup[bs] - b_width_log2_lookup[unit_size]);
    int idx, idy;
    int lw = b_width_log2_lookup[unit_size] + 2;
    int lh = b_height_log2_lookup[unit_size] + 2;

    sum_sse = 0;

    for (idy = 0; idy < bh; ++idy) {
      for (idx = 0; idx < bw; ++idx) {
        uint8_t *src = p->src.buf + (idy * p->src.stride << lh) + (idx << lw);
        uint8_t *dst = pd->dst.buf + (idy * pd->dst.stride << lh) + (idx << lh);
        int block_idx = (idy << 1) + idx;
        int low_err_skip = 0;

        var = cpi->fn_ptr[unit_size].vf(src, p->src.stride,
                                        dst, pd->dst.stride, &sse);
        x->bsse[(i << 2) + block_idx] = sse;
        sum_sse += sse;

        x->skip_txfm[(i << 2) + block_idx] = SKIP_TXFM_NONE;
        if (!x->select_tx_size) {
          // Check if all ac coefficients can be quantized to zero.
          if (var < ac_thr || var == 0) {
            x->skip_txfm[(i << 2) + block_idx] = SKIP_TXFM_AC_ONLY;

            // Check if dc coefficient can be quantized to zero.
            if (sse - var < dc_thr || sse == var) {
              x->skip_txfm[(i << 2) + block_idx] = SKIP_TXFM_AC_DC;

              if (!sse || (var < low_ac_thr && sse - var < low_dc_thr))
                low_err_skip = 1;
            }
          }
        }

        if (skip_flag && !low_err_skip)
          skip_flag = 0;

        if (i == 0)
          x->pred_sse[ref] += sse;
      }
    }

    total_sse += sum_sse;

    // Fast approximate the modelling function.
    if (cpi->sf.simple_model_rd_from_var) {
      int64_t rate;
      const int64_t square_error = sum_sse;
      int quantizer = (pd->dequant[1] >> dequant_shift);

      if (quantizer < 120)
        rate = (square_error * (280 - quantizer)) >> 8;
      else
        rate = 0;
      dist = (square_error * quantizer) >> 8;
      rate_sum += rate;
      dist_sum += dist;
    } else {
      vp10_model_rd_from_var_lapndz(sum_sse, num_pels_log2_lookup[bs],
                                   pd->dequant[1] >> dequant_shift,
                                   &rate, &dist);
      rate_sum += rate;
      dist_sum += dist;
    }
  }

  *skip_txfm_sb = skip_flag;
  *skip_sse_sb = total_sse << 4;
  *out_rate_sum = (int)rate_sum;
  *out_dist_sum = dist_sum << 4;
}

int64_t vp10_block_error_c(const tran_low_t *coeff, const tran_low_t *dqcoeff,
                          intptr_t block_size, int64_t *ssz) {
  int i;
  int64_t error = 0, sqcoeff = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
    const int diff = coeff[i] - dqcoeff[i];
    error +=  diff * diff;
    sqcoeff += coeff[i] * coeff[i];
  }

  *ssz = sqcoeff;
  return error;
}

int64_t vp10_block_error_fp_c(const int16_t *coeff, const int16_t *dqcoeff,
                             int block_size) {
  int i;
  int64_t error = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
    const int diff = coeff[i] - dqcoeff[i];
    error +=  diff * diff;
  }

  return error;
}

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
int64_t vp10_highbd_block_error_c(const tran_low_t *coeff,
                                 const tran_low_t *dqcoeff,
                                 intptr_t block_size,
                                 int64_t *ssz, int bd) {
  int i;
  int64_t error = 0, sqcoeff = 0;
  int shift = 2 * (bd - 8);
  int rounding = shift > 0 ? 1 << (shift - 1) : 0;

  for (i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
    const int64_t diff = coeff[i] - dqcoeff[i];
    error +=  diff * diff;
    sqcoeff += (int64_t)coeff[i] * (int64_t)coeff[i];
  }
  assert(error >= 0 && sqcoeff >= 0);
  error = (error + rounding) >> shift;
  sqcoeff = (sqcoeff + rounding) >> shift;

  *ssz = sqcoeff;
  return error;
}
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

/* The trailing '0' is a terminator which is used inside cost_coeffs() to
 * decide whether to include cost of a trailing EOB node or not (i.e. we
 * can skip this if the last coefficient in this transform block, e.g. the
 * 16th coefficient in a 4x4 block or the 64th coefficient in a 8x8 block,
 * were non-zero). */
static const int16_t band_counts[TX_SIZES][8] = {
  { 1, 2, 3, 4,  3,   16 - 13, 0 },
  { 1, 2, 3, 4, 11,   64 - 21, 0 },
  { 1, 2, 3, 4, 11,  256 - 21, 0 },
  { 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 1024 - 21, 0 },
};
static int cost_coeffs(MACROBLOCK *x,
                       int plane, int block,
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                       int coeff_ctx,
#else
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                       ENTROPY_CONTEXT *A, ENTROPY_CONTEXT *L,
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#endif
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                       TX_SIZE tx_size,
                       const int16_t *scan, const int16_t *nb,
                       int use_fast_coef_costing) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  const struct macroblock_plane *p = &x->plane[plane];
  const struct macroblockd_plane *pd = &xd->plane[plane];
  const PLANE_TYPE type = pd->plane_type;
  const int16_t *band_count = &band_counts[tx_size][1];
  const int eob = p->eobs[block];
  const tran_low_t *const qcoeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(p->qcoeff, block);
  unsigned int (*token_costs)[2][COEFF_CONTEXTS][ENTROPY_TOKENS] =
                   x->token_costs[tx_size][type][is_inter_block(mbmi)];
  uint8_t token_cache[32 * 32];
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
  int pt = coeff_ctx;
#else
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  int pt = combine_entropy_contexts(*A, *L);
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#endif
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  int c, cost;
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  const int16_t *cat6_high_cost = vp10_get_high_cost_table(xd->bd);
#else
  const int16_t *cat6_high_cost = vp10_get_high_cost_table(8);
#endif

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#if !CONFIG_VAR_TX
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  // Check for consistency of tx_size with mode info
  assert(type == PLANE_TYPE_Y ? mbmi->tx_size == tx_size
                              : get_uv_tx_size(mbmi, pd) == tx_size);
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#endif
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  if (eob == 0) {
    // single eob token
    cost = token_costs[0][0][pt][EOB_TOKEN];
    c = 0;
  } else {
    int band_left = *band_count++;

    // dc token
    int v = qcoeff[0];
    int16_t prev_t;
    EXTRABIT e;
    vp10_get_token_extra(v, &prev_t, &e);
    cost = (*token_costs)[0][pt][prev_t] +
        vp10_get_cost(prev_t, e, cat6_high_cost);

    token_cache[0] = vp10_pt_energy_class[prev_t];
    ++token_costs;

    // ac tokens
    for (c = 1; c < eob; c++) {
      const int rc = scan[c];
      int16_t t;

      v = qcoeff[rc];
      vp10_get_token_extra(v, &t, &e);
      if (use_fast_coef_costing) {
        cost += (*token_costs)[!prev_t][!prev_t][t] +
            vp10_get_cost(t, e, cat6_high_cost);
      } else {
        pt = get_coef_context(nb, token_cache, c);
        cost += (*token_costs)[!prev_t][pt][t] +
            vp10_get_cost(t, e, cat6_high_cost);
        token_cache[rc] = vp10_pt_energy_class[t];
      }
      prev_t = t;
      if (!--band_left) {
        band_left = *band_count++;
        ++token_costs;
      }
    }

    // eob token
    if (band_left) {
      if (use_fast_coef_costing) {
        cost += (*token_costs)[0][!prev_t][EOB_TOKEN];
      } else {
        pt = get_coef_context(nb, token_cache, c);
        cost += (*token_costs)[0][pt][EOB_TOKEN];
      }
    }
  }

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#if !CONFIG_VAR_TX
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  // is eob first coefficient;
  *A = *L = (c > 0);
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#endif
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  return cost;
}

static void dist_block(MACROBLOCK *x, int plane, int block, TX_SIZE tx_size,
                       int64_t *out_dist, int64_t *out_sse) {
  const int ss_txfrm_size = tx_size << 1;
  MACROBLOCKD* const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  const struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[plane];
  const struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[plane];
  int64_t this_sse;
  int shift = tx_size == TX_32X32 ? 0 : 2;
  tran_low_t *const coeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(p->coeff, block);
  tran_low_t *const dqcoeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block);
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  const int bd = (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) ? xd->bd : 8;
  *out_dist = vp10_highbd_block_error(coeff, dqcoeff, 16 << ss_txfrm_size,
                                     &this_sse, bd) >> shift;
#else
  *out_dist = vp10_block_error(coeff, dqcoeff, 16 << ss_txfrm_size,
                              &this_sse) >> shift;
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  *out_sse = this_sse >> shift;
}

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static int rate_block(int plane, int block, int blk_row, int blk_col,
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                      TX_SIZE tx_size, struct rdcost_block_args* args) {
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
  int coeff_ctx = combine_entropy_contexts(*(args->t_above + blk_col),
                                           *(args->t_left + blk_row));
  int coeff_cost = cost_coeffs(args->x, plane, block, coeff_ctx,
                               tx_size, args->so->scan, args->so->neighbors,
                               args->use_fast_coef_costing);
  const struct macroblock_plane *p = &args->x->plane[plane];
  *(args->t_above + blk_col) = !(p->eobs[block] == 0);
  *(args->t_left  + blk_row) = !(p->eobs[block] == 0);
  return coeff_cost;
#else
  return cost_coeffs(args->x, plane, block,
                     args->t_above + blk_col,
                     args->t_left + blk_row,
                     tx_size, args->so->scan, args->so->neighbors,
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                     args->use_fast_coef_costing);
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#endif
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}

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static void block_rd_txfm(int plane, int block, int blk_row, int blk_col,
                          BLOCK_SIZE plane_bsize,
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                          TX_SIZE tx_size, void *arg) {
  struct rdcost_block_args *args = arg;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = args->x;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  int64_t rd1, rd2, rd;
  int rate;
  int64_t dist;
  int64_t sse;

  if (args->exit_early)
    return;

  if (!is_inter_block(mbmi)) {
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
    struct encode_b_args arg = {x, NULL, &mbmi->skip};
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#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    vp10_encode_block_intra(plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                            plane_bsize, tx_size, &arg);
    dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
#else
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    uint8_t *dst, *src;
    int src_stride = x->plane[plane].src.stride;
    int dst_stride = xd->plane[plane].dst.stride;
    unsigned int tmp_sse;
    PREDICTION_MODE mode = (plane == 0) ?
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        get_y_mode(xd->mi[0], block) : mbmi->uv_mode;
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    src = &x->plane[plane].src.buf[4 * (blk_row * src_stride + blk_col)];
    dst = &xd->plane[plane].dst.buf[4 * (blk_row * dst_stride + blk_col)];
    vp10_predict_intra_block(xd, b_width_log2_lookup[plane_bsize],
                             b_height_log2_lookup[plane_bsize],
                             tx_size, mode, dst, dst_stride,
                             dst, dst_stride, blk_col, blk_row, plane);
    args->cpi->fn_ptr[txsize_to_bsize[tx_size]].vf(src, src_stride,
                                                   dst, dst_stride, &tmp_sse);
    sse = (int64_t)tmp_sse * 16;
    vp10_encode_block_intra(plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                            plane_bsize, tx_size, &arg);
    args->cpi->fn_ptr[txsize_to_bsize[tx_size]].vf(src, src_stride,
                                                   dst, dst_stride, &tmp_sse);
    dist = (int64_t)tmp_sse * 16;
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
#else
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    struct encode_b_args arg = {x, NULL, &mbmi->skip};
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    vp10_encode_block_intra(plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                            plane_bsize, tx_size, &arg);
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    dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
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#endif
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  } else if (max_txsize_lookup[plane_bsize] == tx_size) {
    if (x->skip_txfm[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] ==
        SKIP_TXFM_NONE) {
      // full forward transform and quantization
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      vp10_xform_quant(x, plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                       plane_bsize, tx_size);
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      dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
    } else if (x->skip_txfm[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] ==
               SKIP_TXFM_AC_ONLY) {
      // compute DC coefficient
      tran_low_t *const coeff   = BLOCK_OFFSET(x->plane[plane].coeff, block);
      tran_low_t *const dqcoeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(xd->plane[plane].dqcoeff, block);
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      vp10_xform_quant_dc(x, plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                          plane_bsize, tx_size);
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      sse  = x->bsse[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] << 4;
      dist = sse;
      if (x->plane[plane].eobs[block]) {
        const int64_t orig_sse = (int64_t)coeff[0] * coeff[0];
        const int64_t resd_sse = coeff[0] - dqcoeff[0];
        int64_t dc_correct = orig_sse - resd_sse * resd_sse;
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
        dc_correct >>= ((xd->bd - 8) * 2);
#endif
        if (tx_size != TX_32X32)
          dc_correct >>= 2;

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        dist = VPXMAX(0, sse - dc_correct);
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      }
    } else {
      // SKIP_TXFM_AC_DC
      // skip forward transform
      x->plane[plane].eobs[block] = 0;
      sse  = x->bsse[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] << 4;
      dist = sse;
    }
  } else {
    // full forward transform and quantization
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    vp10_xform_quant(x, plane, block, blk_row, blk_col, plane_bsize, tx_size);
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    dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
  }

  rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, 0, dist);
  if (args->this_rd + rd > args->best_rd) {
    args->exit_early = 1;
    return;
  }

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  rate = rate_block(plane, block, blk_row, blk_col, tx_size, args);
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  rd1 = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, rate, dist);
  rd2 = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, 0, sse);

  // TODO(jingning): temporarily enabled only for luma component
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  rd = VPXMIN(rd1, rd2);
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  if (plane == 0)
    x->zcoeff_blk[tx_size][block] = !x->plane[plane].eobs[block] ||
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        (rd1 > rd2 && !xd->lossless[mbmi->segment_id]);
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  args->this_rate += rate;
  args->this_dist += dist;
  args->this_sse += sse;
  args->this_rd += rd;

  if (args->this_rd > args->best_rd) {
    args->exit_early = 1;
    return;
  }

  args->skippable &= !x->plane[plane].eobs[block];
}

static void txfm_rd_in_plane(MACROBLOCK *x,
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                             const VP10_COMP *cpi,
#endif
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                             int *rate, int64_t *distortion,
                             int *skippable, int64_t *sse,
                             int64_t ref_best_rd, int plane,
                             BLOCK_SIZE bsize, TX_SIZE tx_size,
                             int use_fast_coef_casting) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  const struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[plane];
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  TX_TYPE tx_type;
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  struct rdcost_block_args args;
  vp10_zero(args);
  args.x = x;
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
  args.cpi = cpi;
#endif
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  args.best_rd = ref_best_rd;
  args.use_fast_coef_costing = use_fast_coef_casting;
  args.skippable = 1;

  if (plane == 0)
    xd->mi[0]->mbmi.tx_size = tx_size;

  vp10_get_entropy_contexts(bsize, tx_size, pd, args.t_above, args.t_left);

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  tx_type = get_tx_type(pd->plane_type, xd, 0, tx_size);
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  args.so = get_scan(tx_size, tx_type, is_inter_block(&xd->mi[0]->mbmi));
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  vp10_foreach_transformed_block_in_plane(xd, bsize, plane,
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                                          block_rd_txfm, &args);
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  if (args.exit_early) {
    *rate       = INT_MAX;
    *distortion = INT64_MAX;
    *sse        = INT64_MAX;
    *skippable  = 0;
  } else {
    *distortion = args.this_dist;
    *rate       = args.this_rate;
    *sse        = args.this_sse;
    *skippable  = args.skippable;
  }
}

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static void choose_largest_tx_size(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                   int *rate, int64_t *distortion,
                                   int *skip, int64_t *sse,
                                   int64_t ref_best_rd,
                                   BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  const TX_SIZE max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bs];
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  VP10_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  const TX_SIZE largest_tx_size = tx_mode_to_biggest_tx_size[cm->tx_mode];
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  TX_TYPE tx_type, best_tx_type = DCT_DCT;
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  int r, s;
  int64_t d, psse, this_rd, best_rd = INT64_MAX;
  vpx_prob skip_prob = vp10_get_skip_prob(cm, xd);
  int  s0 = vp10_cost_bit(skip_prob, 0);
  int  s1 = vp10_cost_bit(skip_prob, 1);
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  int ext_tx_set;
  const int is_inter = is_inter_block(mbmi);
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  mbmi->tx_size = VPXMIN(max_tx_size, largest_tx_size);
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  ext_tx_set = get_ext_tx_set(mbmi->tx_size, bs, is_inter);

  if (is_inter &&
      get_ext_tx_types(mbmi->tx_size, bs, is_inter) > 1 &&
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      !xd->lossless[mbmi->segment_id]) {
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    for (tx_type = 0; tx_type < TX_TYPES; ++tx_type) {
      if (is_inter) {
        if (!ext_tx_used_inter[ext_tx_set][tx_type])
          continue;
      } else {
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        if (!ALLOW_INTRA_EXT_TX && bs >= BLOCK_8X8) {
          if (tx_type != intra_mode_to_tx_type_lookup[mbmi->mode])
            continue;
        }
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        if (!ext_tx_used_intra[ext_tx_set][tx_type])
          continue;
      }

      mbmi->tx_type = tx_type;
      if (ext_tx_set == 1 &&
          mbmi->tx_type >= DST_ADST && mbmi->tx_type < IDTX &&
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          best_tx_type == DCT_DCT) {
        tx_type = IDTX - 1;
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        continue;
      }
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      txfm_rd_in_plane(x,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                       cpi,
#endif
                       &r, &d, &s,
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                       &psse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs, mbmi->tx_size,
                       cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);

      if (r == INT_MAX)
        continue;
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      if (get_ext_tx_types(mbmi->tx_size, bs, is_inter) > 1) {
        if (is_inter) {
          if (ext_tx_set > 0)
            r += cpi->inter_tx_type_costs[ext_tx_set]
                                         [mbmi->tx_size][mbmi->tx_type];
        } else {
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          if (ext_tx_set > 0 && ALLOW_INTRA_EXT_TX)
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            r += cpi->intra_tx_type_costs[ext_tx_set][mbmi->tx_size]
                                         [mbmi->mode][mbmi->tx_type];
        }
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      }
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      if (s)
        this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, psse);
      else
        this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, r + s0, d);
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      if (is_inter_block(mbmi) && !xd->lossless[mbmi->segment_id] && !s)
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        this_rd = VPXMIN(this_rd, RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, psse));

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      if (this_rd < ((best_tx_type == DCT_DCT) ? ext_tx_th : 1) * best_rd) {
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        best_rd = this_rd;
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        best_tx_type = mbmi->tx_type;
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      }
    }
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  }
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  mbmi->tx_type = best_tx_type;
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  txfm_rd_in_plane(x,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                   cpi,
#endif
                   rate, distortion, skip,
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                   sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs,
                   mbmi->tx_size, cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  if (get_ext_tx_types(mbmi->tx_size, bs, is_inter) > 1 &&
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      !xd->lossless[mbmi->segment_id] && *rate != INT_MAX) {
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    int ext_tx_set = get_ext_tx_set(mbmi->tx_size, bs, is_inter);
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    if (is_inter) {
      if (ext_tx_set > 0)
        *rate += cpi->inter_tx_type_costs[ext_tx_set][mbmi->tx_size]
                                                      [mbmi->tx_type];
    } else {
      if (ext_tx_set > 0 && ALLOW_INTRA_EXT_TX)
        *rate +=
            cpi->intra_tx_type_costs[ext_tx_set][mbmi->tx_size]
                                                 [mbmi->mode][mbmi->tx_type];
    }
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  }
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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}

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static void choose_smallest_tx_size(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
                                    int *rate, int64_t *distortion,
                                    int *skip, int64_t *sse,
                                    int64_t ref_best_rd,
                                    BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;

  mbmi->tx_size = TX_4X4;

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  txfm_rd_in_plane(x,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                   cpi,
#endif
                   rate, distortion, skip,
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                   sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs,
                   mbmi->tx_size, cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
}

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static void choose_tx_size_from_rd(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                   int *rate,
                                   int64_t *distortion,
                                   int *skip,
                                   int64_t *psse,
                                   int64_t ref_best_rd,
                                   BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  const TX_SIZE max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bs];
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  VP10_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  vpx_prob skip_prob = vp10_get_skip_prob(cm, xd);
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  int r, s;
  int64_t d, sse;
  int64_t rd = INT64_MAX;
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  int n, m;
  int s0, s1;
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  int64_t best_rd = INT64_MAX, last_rd = INT64_MAX;
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  TX_SIZE best_tx = max_tx_size;
  int start_tx, end_tx;
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  const int tx_select = cm->tx_mode == TX_MODE_SELECT;
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  TX_TYPE tx_type, best_tx_type = DCT_DCT;
  int ext_tx_set;
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  const int is_inter = is_inter_block(mbmi);
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  const vpx_prob *tx_probs = get_tx_probs2(max_tx_size, xd, &cm->fc->tx_probs);
  assert(skip_prob > 0);
  s0 = vp10_cost_bit(skip_prob, 0);
  s1 = vp10_cost_bit(skip_prob, 1);

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  if (tx_select) {
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    start_tx = max_tx_size;
    end_tx = 0;
  } else {
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    const TX_SIZE chosen_tx_size =
        VPXMIN(max_tx_size, tx_mode_to_biggest_tx_size[cm->tx_mode]);
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    start_tx = chosen_tx_size;
    end_tx = chosen_tx_size;
  }

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  *distortion = INT64_MAX;
  *rate       = INT_MAX;
  *skip       = 0;
  *psse       = INT64_MAX;

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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  for (tx_type = DCT_DCT; tx_type < TX_TYPES; ++tx_type) {
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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    last_rd = INT64_MAX;
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    for (n = start_tx; n >= end_tx; --n) {
      int r_tx_size = 0;
      for (m = 0; m <= n - (n == (int) max_tx_size); ++m) {
        if (m == n)
          r_tx_size += vp10_cost_zero(tx_probs[m]);
        else
          r_tx_size += vp10_cost_one(tx_probs[m]);
      }
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
      ext_tx_set = get_ext_tx_set(n, bs, is_inter);
      if (is_inter) {
        if (!ext_tx_used_inter[ext_tx_set][tx_type])
          continue;
      } else {
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        if (!ALLOW_INTRA_EXT_TX && bs >= BLOCK_8X8) {
          if (tx_type != intra_mode_to_tx_type_lookup[mbmi->mode])
            continue;
        }
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        if (!ext_tx_used_intra[ext_tx_set][tx_type])
          continue;
      }
      mbmi->tx_type = tx_type;
      if (ext_tx_set == 1 &&
          mbmi->tx_type >= DST_ADST && mbmi->tx_type < IDTX &&
          best_tx_type == DCT_DCT) {
        tx_type = IDTX - 1;
        break;
      }
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      txfm_rd_in_plane(x,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                       cpi,
#endif
                       &r, &d, &s,
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                       &sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs, n,
                       cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
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      if (get_ext_tx_types(n, bs, is_inter) > 1 &&
          !xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id] &&
          r != INT_MAX) {
        if (is_inter) {
          if (ext_tx_set > 0)
            r += cpi->inter_tx_type_costs[ext_tx_set]
                                         [mbmi->tx_size][mbmi->tx_type];
        } else {
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          if (ext_tx_set > 0 && ALLOW_INTRA_EXT_TX)
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            r += cpi->intra_tx_type_costs[ext_tx_set][mbmi->tx_size]
                                         [mbmi->mode][mbmi->tx_type];
        }
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      }
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#else  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
      txfm_rd_in_plane(x,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                       cpi,
#endif
                       &r, &d, &s,
                       &sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs, n,
                       cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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      if (r == INT_MAX)
        continue;

      if (s) {
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        if (is_inter) {
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          rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, sse);
        } else {
          rd =  RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1 + r_tx_size * tx_select, sse);
        }
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      } else {
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        rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, r + s0 + r_tx_size * tx_select, d);
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      }
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      if (tx_select && !(s && is_inter))
        r += r_tx_size;

      if (is_inter && !xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id] && !s)
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        rd = VPXMIN(rd, RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, sse));
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      // Early termination in transform size search.
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      if (cpi->sf.tx_size_search_breakout &&
          (rd == INT64_MAX ||
#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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           (s == 1 && tx_type != DCT_DCT && n < start_tx) ||
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#else
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           (s == 1 && n < start_tx) ||
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#endif
           (n < (int) max_tx_size && rd > last_rd)))
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        break;
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      last_rd = rd;
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      if (rd <
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
          (is_inter && best_tx_type == DCT_DCT ? ext_tx_th : 1) *
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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          best_rd) {
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        best_tx = n;
        best_rd = rd;
        *distortion = d;
        *rate       = r;
        *skip       = s;
        *psse       = sse;
#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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        best_tx_type = mbmi->tx_type;
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
      }
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    }
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  }
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#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  mbmi->tx_size = best_tx;
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#if CONFIG_EXT_TX
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  mbmi->tx_type = best_tx_type;
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  txfm_rd_in_plane(x,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                   cpi,
#endif
                   &r, &d, &s,
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                   &sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs, best_tx,
                   cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
#endif  // CONFIG_EXT_TX
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}

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static void super_block_yrd(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x, int *rate,
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                            int64_t *distortion, int *skip,
                            int64_t *psse, BLOCK_SIZE bs,
                            int64_t ref_best_rd) {
  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
  int64_t sse;
  int64_t *ret_sse = psse ? psse : &sse;

  assert(bs == xd->mi[0]->mbmi.sb_type);

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  if (xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id]) {
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    choose_smallest_tx_size(cpi, x, rate, distortion, skip, ret_sse,
                            ref_best_rd, bs);
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  } else if (cpi->sf.tx_size_search_method == USE_LARGESTALL) {
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    choose_largest_tx_size(cpi, x, rate, distortion, skip, ret_sse, ref_best_rd,
                           bs);
  } else {
    choose_tx_size_from_rd(cpi, x, rate, distortion, skip, ret_sse,
                           ref_best_rd, bs);
  }
}

static int conditional_skipintra(PREDICTION_MODE mode,
                                 PREDICTION_MODE best_intra_mode) {
  if (mode == D117_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != V_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D135_PRED)
    return 1;
  if (mode == D63_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != V_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D45_PRED)
    return 1;
  if (mode == D207_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != H_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D45_PRED)
    return 1;
  if (mode == D153_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != H_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D135_PRED)
    return 1;
  return 0;
}

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void rd_pick_palette_intra_sby(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                               int palette_ctx, int dc_mode_cost,
                               PALETTE_MODE_INFO *palette_mode_info,
                               uint8_t *best_palette_color_map,
                               TX_SIZE *best_tx, PREDICTION_MODE *mode_selected,
                               int64_t *best_rd) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MODE_INFO *const mic = xd->mi[0];
  int rows = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  int cols = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  int this_rate, this_rate_tokenonly, s;
  int64_t this_distortion, this_rd;
  int colors, n;
  int src_stride = x->plane[0].src.stride;
  uint8_t *src = x->plane[0].src.buf;

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth)
    colors = vp10_count_colors_highbd(src, src_stride, rows, cols,
                                      cpi->common.bit_depth);
  else
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    colors = vp10_count_colors(src, src_stride, rows, cols);
  palette_mode_info->palette_size[0] = 0;

  if (colors > 1 && colors <= 64 && cpi->common.allow_screen_content_tools) {
    int r, c, i, j, k;
    int max_itr = 50;
    int color_ctx, color_idx = 0;
    int color_order[PALETTE_MAX_SIZE];
    double *data = x->palette_buffer->kmeans_data_buf;
    uint8_t *indices = x->palette_buffer->kmeans_indices_buf;
    uint8_t *pre_indices = x->palette_buffer->kmeans_pre_indices_buf;
    double centroids[PALETTE_MAX_SIZE];
    uint8_t *color_map;
    double lb, ub, val;
    PALETTE_MODE_INFO *pmi = &mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info;
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    uint16_t *src16 = CONVERT_TO_SHORTPTR(src);
    if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth)
      lb = ub = src16[0];
    else
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      lb = ub = src[0];

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth) {
      for (r = 0; r < rows; ++r) {
        for (c = 0; c < cols; ++c) {
          val = src16[r * src_stride + c];
          data[r * cols + c] = val;
          if (val < lb)
            lb = val;
          else if (val > ub)
            ub = val;
        }
      }
    } else {
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      for (r = 0; r < rows; ++r) {
        for (c = 0; c < cols; ++c) {
          val = src[r * src_stride + c];
          data[r * cols + c] = val;
          if (val < lb)
            lb = val;
          else if (val > ub)
            ub = val;
        }
      }
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    }
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

    mic->mbmi.mode = DC_PRED;

    for (n = colors > PALETTE_MAX_SIZE ? PALETTE_MAX_SIZE : colors;
        n >= 2; --n) {
      for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
        centroids[i] = lb + (2 * i + 1) * (ub - lb) / n / 2;
      vp10_k_means(data, centroids, indices, pre_indices, rows * cols,
                   n, 1, max_itr);
      vp10_insertion_sort(centroids, n);
      for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
        centroids[i] = round(centroids[i]);
      // remove duplicates
      i = 1;
      k = n;
      while (i < k) {
        if (centroids[i] == centroids[i - 1]) {
          j = i;
          while (j < k - 1) {
            centroids[j] = centroids[j + 1];
            ++j;
          }
          --k;
        } else {
          ++i;
        }
      }

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth)
        for (i = 0; i < k; ++i)
          mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_colors[i] =
              clip_pixel_highbd(round(centroids[i]), cpi->common.bit_depth);
      else
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
        for (i = 0; i < k; ++i)
          pmi->palette_colors[i] = clip_pixel((int)round(centroids[i]));
      pmi->palette_size[0] = k;

      vp10_calc_indices(data, centroids, indices, rows * cols, k, 1);
      for (r = 0; r < rows; ++r)
        for (c = 0; c < cols; ++c)
          xd->plane[0].color_index_map[r * cols + c] = indices[r * cols + c];

      super_block_yrd(cpi, x, &this_rate_tokenonly, &this_distortion,
                      &s, NULL, bsize, *best_rd);
      if (this_rate_tokenonly == INT_MAX)
        continue;

      this_rate = this_rate_tokenonly + dc_mode_cost +
          cpi->common.bit_depth * k * vp10_cost_bit(128, 0) +
          cpi->palette_y_size_cost[bsize - BLOCK_8X8][k - 2];
      this_rate +=
          vp10_cost_bit(vp10_default_palette_y_mode_prob[bsize - BLOCK_8X8]
                                                         [palette_ctx], 1);
      color_map = xd->plane[0].color_index_map;
      this_rate +=  write_uniform_cost(k, xd->plane[0].color_index_map[0]);
      for (i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
        for (j = (i == 0 ? 1 : 0); j < cols; ++j) {
          color_ctx = vp10_get_palette_color_context(color_map, cols, i, j,
                                                     k, color_order);
          for (r = 0; r < k; ++r)
            if (color_map[i * cols + j] == color_order[r]) {
              color_idx = r;
              break;
            }
          assert(color_idx < k);
          this_rate +=
              cpi->palette_y_color_cost[k - 2][color_ctx][color_idx];
        }
      }
      this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, this_rate, this_distortion);

      if (this_rd < *best_rd) {
        *best_rd = this_rd;
        *palette_mode_info = mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info;
        memcpy(best_palette_color_map, xd->plane[0].color_index_map,
               rows * cols * sizeof(xd->plane[0].color_index_map[0]));
        *mode_selected = DC_PRED;
        *best_tx = mic->mbmi.tx_size;
      }
    }
  }
}

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static int64_t rd_pick_intra4x4block(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                     int row, int col,
                                     PREDICTION_MODE *best_mode,
                                     const int *bmode_costs,
                                     ENTROPY_CONTEXT *a, ENTROPY_CONTEXT *l,
                                     int *bestrate, int *bestratey,
                                     int64_t *bestdistortion,
                                     BLOCK_SIZE bsize, int64_t rd_thresh) {
  PREDICTION_MODE mode;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  int64_t best_rd = rd_thresh;
  struct macroblock_plane *p = &x->plane[0];
  struct macroblockd_plane *pd = &xd->plane[0];
  const int src_stride = p->src.stride;
  const int dst_stride = pd->dst.stride;
  const uint8_t *src_init = &p->src.buf[row * 4 * src_stride + col * 4];
  uint8_t *dst_init = &pd->dst.buf[row * 4 * src_stride + col * 4];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT ta[2], tempa[2];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT tl[2], templ[2];
  const int num_4x4_blocks_wide = num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  const int num_4x4_blocks_high = num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  int idx, idy;
  uint8_t best_dst[8 * 8];
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  uint16_t best_dst16[8 * 8];
#endif

  memcpy(ta, a, sizeof(ta));
  memcpy(tl, l, sizeof(tl));
  xd->mi[0]->mbmi.tx_size = TX_4X4;
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  xd->mi[0]->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] = 0;
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#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  if (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) {
    for (mode = DC_PRED; mode <= TM_PRED; ++mode) {
      int64_t this_rd;
      int ratey = 0;
      int64_t distortion = 0;
      int rate = bmode_costs[mode];

      if (!(cpi->sf.intra_y_mode_mask[TX_4X4] & (1 << mode)))
        continue;

      // Only do the oblique modes if the best so far is
      // one of the neighboring directional modes
      if (cpi->sf.mode_search_skip_flags & FLAG_SKIP_INTRA_DIRMISMATCH) {
        if (conditional_skipintra(mode, *best_mode))
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          continue;
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      }

      memcpy(tempa, ta, sizeof(ta));
      memcpy(templ, tl, sizeof(tl));

      for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high; ++idy) {
        for (idx = 0; idx < num_4x4_blocks_wide; ++idx) {
          const int block = (row + idy) * 2 + (col + idx);
          const uint8_t *const src = &src_init[idx * 4 + idy * 4 * src_stride];
          uint8_t *const dst = &dst_init[idx * 4 + idy * 4 * dst_stride];
          int16_t *const src_diff = vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8,
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                                                                   block,
                                                                   p->src_diff);
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          tran_low_t *const coeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(x->plane[0].coeff, block);
          xd->mi[0]->bmi[block].as_mode = mode;
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          vp10_predict_intra_block(xd, 1, 1, TX_4X4, mode, dst, dst_stride,
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                                  dst, dst_stride,
                                  col + idx, row + idy, 0);
          vpx_highbd_subtract_block(4, 4, src_diff, 8, src, src_stride,
                                    dst, dst_stride, xd->bd);
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          if (xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id]) {
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            TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, block, TX_4X4);
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            const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type, 0);
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
            const int coeff_ctx = combine_entropy_contexts(*(tempa + idx),
                                                           *(templ + idy));
#endif
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            vp10_highbd_fwd_txfm_4x4(src_diff, coeff, 8, DCT_DCT, 1);
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            vp10_regular_quantize_b_4x4(x, 0, block, so->scan, so->iscan);
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            ratey += cost_coeffs(x, 0, block,
#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
                                 coeff_ctx,
#else
                                 tempa + idx, templ + idy,
#endif
                                 TX_4X4,
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                                 so->scan, so->neighbors,
                                 cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
            if (RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, ratey, distortion) >= best_rd)
              goto next_highbd;
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            vp10_highbd_inv_txfm_add_4x4(BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
                                         dst, dst_stride, p->eobs[block],
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                                         xd->bd, DCT_DCT, 1);
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          } else {
            int64_t unused;
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            TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, block, TX_4X4);
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            const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type, 0);
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#if CONFIG_VAR_TX
            const int coeff_ctx = combine_entropy_contexts(*(tempa + idx),
                                                           *(templ + idy));
#endif
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            vp10_highbd_fwd_txfm_4x4(s