vpxenc.c 65.6 KB
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/*
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 *  Copyright (c) 2010 The WebM project authors. All Rights Reserved.
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 *
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 *  Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license
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 *  that can be found in the LICENSE file in the root of the source
 *  tree. An additional intellectual property rights grant can be found
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 *  in the file PATENTS.  All contributing project authors may
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 *  be found in the AUTHORS file in the root of the source tree.
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 */


/* This is a simple program that encodes YV12 files and generates ivf
 * files using the new interface.
 */
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#if defined(_WIN32) || !CONFIG_OS_SUPPORT
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#define USE_POSIX_MMAP 0
#else
#define USE_POSIX_MMAP 1
#endif
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <string.h>
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#include <limits.h>
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#include <assert.h>
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#include "vpx/vpx_encoder.h"
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#if USE_POSIX_MMAP
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
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#include "vpx/vp8cx.h"
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#include "vpx_ports/mem_ops.h"
#include "vpx_ports/vpx_timer.h"
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#include "tools_common.h"
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#include "y4minput.h"
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#include "libmkv/EbmlWriter.h"
#include "libmkv/EbmlIDs.h"

/* Need special handling of these functions on Windows */
#if defined(_MSC_VER)
/* MSVS doesn't define off_t, and uses _f{seek,tell}i64 */
typedef __int64 off_t;
#define fseeko _fseeki64
#define ftello _ftelli64
#elif defined(_WIN32)
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/* MinGW defines off_t as long
   and uses f{seek,tell}o64/off64_t for large files */
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#define fseeko fseeko64
#define ftello ftello64
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#define off_t off64_t
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#endif

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#define LITERALU64(n) n
#else
#define LITERALU64(n) n##LLU
#endif
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/* We should use 32-bit file operations in WebM file format
 * when building ARM executable file (.axf) with RVCT */
#if !CONFIG_OS_SUPPORT
typedef long off_t;
#define fseeko fseek
#define ftello ftell
#endif

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static const char *exec_name;

static const struct codec_item
{
    char const              *name;
    const vpx_codec_iface_t *iface;
    unsigned int             fourcc;
} codecs[] =
{
#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
    {"vp8",  &vpx_codec_vp8_cx_algo, 0x30385056},
#endif
};

static void usage_exit();

void die(const char *fmt, ...)
{
    va_list ap;
    va_start(ap, fmt);
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    vfprintf(stderr, fmt, ap);
    fprintf(stderr, "\n");
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    usage_exit();
}

static void ctx_exit_on_error(vpx_codec_ctx_t *ctx, const char *s)
{
    if (ctx->err)
    {
        const char *detail = vpx_codec_error_detail(ctx);

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        fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", s, vpx_codec_error(ctx));
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        if (detail)
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            fprintf(stderr, "    %s\n", detail);
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        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
}

/* This structure is used to abstract the different ways of handling
 * first pass statistics.
 */
typedef struct
{
    vpx_fixed_buf_t buf;
    int             pass;
    FILE           *file;
    char           *buf_ptr;
    size_t          buf_alloc_sz;
} stats_io_t;

int stats_open_file(stats_io_t *stats, const char *fpf, int pass)
{
    int res;

    stats->pass = pass;

    if (pass == 0)
    {
        stats->file = fopen(fpf, "wb");
        stats->buf.sz = 0;
        stats->buf.buf = NULL,
                   res = (stats->file != NULL);
    }
    else
    {
#if 0
#elif USE_POSIX_MMAP
        struct stat stat_buf;
        int fd;

        fd = open(fpf, O_RDONLY);
        stats->file = fdopen(fd, "rb");
        fstat(fd, &stat_buf);
        stats->buf.sz = stat_buf.st_size;
        stats->buf.buf = mmap(NULL, stats->buf.sz, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE,
                              fd, 0);
        res = (stats->buf.buf != NULL);
#else
        size_t nbytes;

        stats->file = fopen(fpf, "rb");

        if (fseek(stats->file, 0, SEEK_END))
        {
            fprintf(stderr, "First-pass stats file must be seekable!\n");
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        stats->buf.sz = stats->buf_alloc_sz = ftell(stats->file);
        rewind(stats->file);

        stats->buf.buf = malloc(stats->buf_alloc_sz);

        if (!stats->buf.buf)
        {
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            fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate first-pass stats buffer (%lu bytes)\n",
                    (unsigned long)stats->buf_alloc_sz);
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            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        nbytes = fread(stats->buf.buf, 1, stats->buf.sz, stats->file);
        res = (nbytes == stats->buf.sz);
#endif
    }

    return res;
}

int stats_open_mem(stats_io_t *stats, int pass)
{
    int res;
    stats->pass = pass;

    if (!pass)
    {
        stats->buf.sz = 0;
        stats->buf_alloc_sz = 64 * 1024;
        stats->buf.buf = malloc(stats->buf_alloc_sz);
    }

    stats->buf_ptr = stats->buf.buf;
    res = (stats->buf.buf != NULL);
    return res;
}


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void stats_close(stats_io_t *stats, int last_pass)
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{
    if (stats->file)
    {
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        if (stats->pass == last_pass)
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        {
#if 0
#elif USE_POSIX_MMAP
            munmap(stats->buf.buf, stats->buf.sz);
#else
            free(stats->buf.buf);
#endif
        }

        fclose(stats->file);
        stats->file = NULL;
    }
    else
    {
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        if (stats->pass == last_pass)
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            free(stats->buf.buf);
    }
}

void stats_write(stats_io_t *stats, const void *pkt, size_t len)
{
    if (stats->file)
    {
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        if(fwrite(pkt, 1, len, stats->file));
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    }
    else
    {
        if (stats->buf.sz + len > stats->buf_alloc_sz)
        {
            size_t  new_sz = stats->buf_alloc_sz + 64 * 1024;
            char   *new_ptr = realloc(stats->buf.buf, new_sz);

            if (new_ptr)
            {
                stats->buf_ptr = new_ptr + (stats->buf_ptr - (char *)stats->buf.buf);
                stats->buf.buf = new_ptr;
                stats->buf_alloc_sz = new_sz;
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            }
            else
            {
                fprintf(stderr,
                        "\nFailed to realloc firstpass stats buffer.\n");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }
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        }

        memcpy(stats->buf_ptr, pkt, len);
        stats->buf.sz += len;
        stats->buf_ptr += len;
    }
}

vpx_fixed_buf_t stats_get(stats_io_t *stats)
{
    return stats->buf;
}

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/* Stereo 3D packed frame format */
typedef enum stereo_format
{
    STEREO_FORMAT_MONO       = 0,
    STEREO_FORMAT_LEFT_RIGHT = 1,
    STEREO_FORMAT_BOTTOM_TOP = 2,
    STEREO_FORMAT_TOP_BOTTOM = 3,
    STEREO_FORMAT_RIGHT_LEFT = 11
} stereo_format_t;

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enum video_file_type
{
    FILE_TYPE_RAW,
    FILE_TYPE_IVF,
    FILE_TYPE_Y4M
};

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struct detect_buffer {
    char buf[4];
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    size_t buf_read;
    size_t position;
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};


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#define IVF_FRAME_HDR_SZ (4+8) /* 4 byte size + 8 byte timestamp */
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static int read_frame(FILE *f, vpx_image_t *img, unsigned int file_type,
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                      y4m_input *y4m, struct detect_buffer *detect)
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{
    int plane = 0;
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    int shortread = 0;
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    if (file_type == FILE_TYPE_Y4M)
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    {
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        if (y4m_input_fetch_frame(y4m, f, img) < 1)
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           return 0;
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    }
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    else
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    {
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        if (file_type == FILE_TYPE_IVF)
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        {
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            char junk[IVF_FRAME_HDR_SZ];

            /* Skip the frame header. We know how big the frame should be. See
             * write_ivf_frame_header() for documentation on the frame header
             * layout.
             */
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            if(fread(junk, 1, IVF_FRAME_HDR_SZ, f));
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        }

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        for (plane = 0; plane < 3; plane++)
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        {
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            unsigned char *ptr;
            int w = (plane ? (1 + img->d_w) / 2 : img->d_w);
            int h = (plane ? (1 + img->d_h) / 2 : img->d_h);
            int r;

            /* Determine the correct plane based on the image format. The for-loop
             * always counts in Y,U,V order, but this may not match the order of
             * the data on disk.
             */
            switch (plane)
            {
            case 1:
                ptr = img->planes[img->fmt==VPX_IMG_FMT_YV12? VPX_PLANE_V : VPX_PLANE_U];
                break;
            case 2:
                ptr = img->planes[img->fmt==VPX_IMG_FMT_YV12?VPX_PLANE_U : VPX_PLANE_V];
                break;
            default:
                ptr = img->planes[plane];
            }

            for (r = 0; r < h; r++)
            {
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                size_t needed = w;
                size_t buf_position = 0;
                const size_t left = detect->buf_read - detect->position;
                if (left > 0)
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                {
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                    const size_t more = (left < needed) ? left : needed;
                    memcpy(ptr, detect->buf + detect->position, more);
                    buf_position = more;
                    needed -= more;
                    detect->position += more;
                }
                if (needed > 0)
                {
                    shortread |= (fread(ptr + buf_position, 1, needed, f) < needed);
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                }

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                ptr += img->stride[plane];
            }
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        }
    }

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    return !shortread;
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}


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unsigned int file_is_y4m(FILE      *infile,
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                         y4m_input *y4m,
                         char       detect[4])
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{
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    if(memcmp(detect, "YUV4", 4) == 0)
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    {
        return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}

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#define IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ (32)
unsigned int file_is_ivf(FILE *infile,
                         unsigned int *fourcc,
                         unsigned int *width,
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                         unsigned int *height,
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                         struct detect_buffer *detect)
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{
    char raw_hdr[IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ];
    int is_ivf = 0;

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    if(memcmp(detect->buf, "DKIF", 4) != 0)
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        return 0;

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    /* See write_ivf_file_header() for more documentation on the file header
     * layout.
     */
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    if (fread(raw_hdr + 4, 1, IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ - 4, infile)
        == IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ - 4)
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    {
        {
            is_ivf = 1;

            if (mem_get_le16(raw_hdr + 4) != 0)
                fprintf(stderr, "Error: Unrecognized IVF version! This file may not"
                        " decode properly.");

            *fourcc = mem_get_le32(raw_hdr + 8);
        }
    }

    if (is_ivf)
    {
        *width = mem_get_le16(raw_hdr + 12);
        *height = mem_get_le16(raw_hdr + 14);
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        detect->position = 4;
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    }

    return is_ivf;
}


static void write_ivf_file_header(FILE *outfile,
                                  const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
                                  unsigned int fourcc,
                                  int frame_cnt)
{
    char header[32];

    if (cfg->g_pass != VPX_RC_ONE_PASS && cfg->g_pass != VPX_RC_LAST_PASS)
        return;

    header[0] = 'D';
    header[1] = 'K';
    header[2] = 'I';
    header[3] = 'F';
    mem_put_le16(header + 4,  0);                 /* version */
    mem_put_le16(header + 6,  32);                /* headersize */
    mem_put_le32(header + 8,  fourcc);            /* headersize */
    mem_put_le16(header + 12, cfg->g_w);          /* width */
    mem_put_le16(header + 14, cfg->g_h);          /* height */
    mem_put_le32(header + 16, cfg->g_timebase.den); /* rate */
    mem_put_le32(header + 20, cfg->g_timebase.num); /* scale */
    mem_put_le32(header + 24, frame_cnt);         /* length */
    mem_put_le32(header + 28, 0);                 /* unused */

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    if(fwrite(header, 1, 32, outfile));
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}


static void write_ivf_frame_header(FILE *outfile,
                                   const vpx_codec_cx_pkt_t *pkt)
{
    char             header[12];
    vpx_codec_pts_t  pts;

    if (pkt->kind != VPX_CODEC_CX_FRAME_PKT)
        return;

    pts = pkt->data.frame.pts;
    mem_put_le32(header, pkt->data.frame.sz);
    mem_put_le32(header + 4, pts & 0xFFFFFFFF);
    mem_put_le32(header + 8, pts >> 32);

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    if(fwrite(header, 1, 12, outfile));
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}

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typedef off_t EbmlLoc;


struct cue_entry
{
    unsigned int time;
    uint64_t     loc;
};


struct EbmlGlobal
{
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    int debug;

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    FILE    *stream;
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    int64_t last_pts_ms;
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    vpx_rational_t  framerate;

    /* These pointers are to the start of an element */
    off_t    position_reference;
    off_t    seek_info_pos;
    off_t    segment_info_pos;
    off_t    track_pos;
    off_t    cue_pos;
    off_t    cluster_pos;

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    /* This pointer is to a specific element to be serialized */
    off_t    track_id_pos;

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    /* These pointers are to the size field of the element */
    EbmlLoc  startSegment;
    EbmlLoc  startCluster;

    uint32_t cluster_timecode;
    int      cluster_open;

    struct cue_entry *cue_list;
    unsigned int      cues;

};


void Ebml_Write(EbmlGlobal *glob, const void *buffer_in, unsigned long len)
{
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    if(fwrite(buffer_in, 1, len, glob->stream));
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}

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#define WRITE_BUFFER(s) \
for(i = len-1; i>=0; i--)\
{ \
    x = *(const s *)buffer_in >> (i * CHAR_BIT); \
    Ebml_Write(glob, &x, 1); \
}
void Ebml_Serialize(EbmlGlobal *glob, const void *buffer_in, int buffer_size, unsigned long len)
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{
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    char x;
    int i;

    /* buffer_size:
     * 1 - int8_t;
     * 2 - int16_t;
     * 3 - int32_t;
     * 4 - int64_t;
     */
    switch (buffer_size)
    {
        case 1:
            WRITE_BUFFER(int8_t)
            break;
        case 2:
            WRITE_BUFFER(int16_t)
            break;
        case 4:
            WRITE_BUFFER(int32_t)
            break;
        case 8:
            WRITE_BUFFER(int64_t)
            break;
        default:
            break;
    }
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}
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#undef WRITE_BUFFER
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/* Need a fixed size serializer for the track ID. libmkv provides a 64 bit
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 * one, but not a 32 bit one.
 */
static void Ebml_SerializeUnsigned32(EbmlGlobal *glob, unsigned long class_id, uint64_t ui)
{
    unsigned char sizeSerialized = 4 | 0x80;
    Ebml_WriteID(glob, class_id);
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    Ebml_Serialize(glob, &sizeSerialized, sizeof(sizeSerialized), 1);
    Ebml_Serialize(glob, &ui, sizeof(ui), 4);
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}


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static void
Ebml_StartSubElement(EbmlGlobal *glob, EbmlLoc *ebmlLoc,
                          unsigned long class_id)
{
    //todo this is always taking 8 bytes, this may need later optimization
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    //this is a key that says length unknown
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    uint64_t unknownLen =  LITERALU64(0x01FFFFFFFFFFFFFF);
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    Ebml_WriteID(glob, class_id);
    *ebmlLoc = ftello(glob->stream);
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    Ebml_Serialize(glob, &unknownLen, sizeof(unknownLen), 8);
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}

static void
Ebml_EndSubElement(EbmlGlobal *glob, EbmlLoc *ebmlLoc)
{
    off_t pos;
    uint64_t size;

    /* Save the current stream pointer */
    pos = ftello(glob->stream);

    /* Calculate the size of this element */
    size = pos - *ebmlLoc - 8;
    size |=  LITERALU64(0x0100000000000000);

    /* Seek back to the beginning of the element and write the new size */
    fseeko(glob->stream, *ebmlLoc, SEEK_SET);
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    Ebml_Serialize(glob, &size, sizeof(size), 8);
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    /* Reset the stream pointer */
    fseeko(glob->stream, pos, SEEK_SET);
}


static void
write_webm_seek_element(EbmlGlobal *ebml, unsigned long id, off_t pos)
{
    uint64_t offset = pos - ebml->position_reference;
    EbmlLoc start;
    Ebml_StartSubElement(ebml, &start, Seek);
    Ebml_SerializeBinary(ebml, SeekID, id);
    Ebml_SerializeUnsigned64(ebml, SeekPosition, offset);
    Ebml_EndSubElement(ebml, &start);
}


static void
write_webm_seek_info(EbmlGlobal *ebml)
{

    off_t pos;

    /* Save the current stream pointer */
    pos = ftello(ebml->stream);

    if(ebml->seek_info_pos)
        fseeko(ebml->stream, ebml->seek_info_pos, SEEK_SET);
    else
        ebml->seek_info_pos = pos;

    {
        EbmlLoc start;

        Ebml_StartSubElement(ebml, &start, SeekHead);
        write_webm_seek_element(ebml, Tracks, ebml->track_pos);
        write_webm_seek_element(ebml, Cues,   ebml->cue_pos);
        write_webm_seek_element(ebml, Info,   ebml->segment_info_pos);
        Ebml_EndSubElement(ebml, &start);
    }
    {
        //segment info
        EbmlLoc startInfo;
        uint64_t frame_time;
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        char version_string[64];

        /* Assemble version string */
        if(ebml->debug)
            strcpy(version_string, "vpxenc");
        else
        {
            strcpy(version_string, "vpxenc ");
            strncat(version_string,
                    vpx_codec_version_str(),
                    sizeof(version_string) - 1 - strlen(version_string));
        }
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        frame_time = (uint64_t)1000 * ebml->framerate.den
                     / ebml->framerate.num;
        ebml->segment_info_pos = ftello(ebml->stream);
        Ebml_StartSubElement(ebml, &startInfo, Info);
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(ebml, TimecodeScale, 1000000);
        Ebml_SerializeFloat(ebml, Segment_Duration,
                            ebml->last_pts_ms + frame_time);
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        Ebml_SerializeString(ebml, 0x4D80, version_string);
        Ebml_SerializeString(ebml, 0x5741, version_string);
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        Ebml_EndSubElement(ebml, &startInfo);
    }
}


static void
write_webm_file_header(EbmlGlobal                *glob,
                       const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
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                       const struct vpx_rational *fps,
                       stereo_format_t            stereo_fmt)
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{
    {
        EbmlLoc start;
        Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &start, EBML);
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, EBMLVersion, 1);
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, EBMLReadVersion, 1); //EBML Read Version
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, EBMLMaxIDLength, 4); //EBML Max ID Length
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, EBMLMaxSizeLength, 8); //EBML Max Size Length
        Ebml_SerializeString(glob, DocType, "webm"); //Doc Type
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, DocTypeVersion, 2); //Doc Type Version
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, DocTypeReadVersion, 2); //Doc Type Read Version
        Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &start);
    }
    {
        Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &glob->startSegment, Segment); //segment
        glob->position_reference = ftello(glob->stream);
        glob->framerate = *fps;
        write_webm_seek_info(glob);

        {
            EbmlLoc trackStart;
            glob->track_pos = ftello(glob->stream);
            Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &trackStart, Tracks);
            {
                unsigned int trackNumber = 1;
                uint64_t     trackID = 0;

                EbmlLoc start;
                Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &start, TrackEntry);
                Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, TrackNumber, trackNumber);
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                glob->track_id_pos = ftello(glob->stream);
                Ebml_SerializeUnsigned32(glob, TrackUID, trackID);
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                Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, TrackType, 1); //video is always 1
                Ebml_SerializeString(glob, CodecID, "V_VP8");
                {
                    unsigned int pixelWidth = cfg->g_w;
                    unsigned int pixelHeight = cfg->g_h;
                    float        frameRate   = (float)fps->num/(float)fps->den;

                    EbmlLoc videoStart;
                    Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &videoStart, Video);
                    Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, PixelWidth, pixelWidth);
                    Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, PixelHeight, pixelHeight);
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                    Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, StereoMode, stereo_fmt);
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                    Ebml_SerializeFloat(glob, FrameRate, frameRate);
                    Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &videoStart); //Video
                }
                Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &start); //Track Entry
            }
            Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &trackStart);
        }
        // segment element is open
    }
}


static void
write_webm_block(EbmlGlobal                *glob,
                 const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
                 const vpx_codec_cx_pkt_t  *pkt)
{
    unsigned long  block_length;
    unsigned char  track_number;
    unsigned short block_timecode = 0;
    unsigned char  flags;
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    int64_t        pts_ms;
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    int            start_cluster = 0, is_keyframe;

    /* Calculate the PTS of this frame in milliseconds */
    pts_ms = pkt->data.frame.pts * 1000
             * (uint64_t)cfg->g_timebase.num / (uint64_t)cfg->g_timebase.den;
    if(pts_ms <= glob->last_pts_ms)
        pts_ms = glob->last_pts_ms + 1;
    glob->last_pts_ms = pts_ms;

    /* Calculate the relative time of this block */
    if(pts_ms - glob->cluster_timecode > SHRT_MAX)
        start_cluster = 1;
    else
        block_timecode = pts_ms - glob->cluster_timecode;

    is_keyframe = (pkt->data.frame.flags & VPX_FRAME_IS_KEY);
    if(start_cluster || is_keyframe)
    {
        if(glob->cluster_open)
            Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &glob->startCluster);

        /* Open the new cluster */
        block_timecode = 0;
        glob->cluster_open = 1;
        glob->cluster_timecode = pts_ms;
        glob->cluster_pos = ftello(glob->stream);
        Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &glob->startCluster, Cluster); //cluster
        Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, Timecode, glob->cluster_timecode);

        /* Save a cue point if this is a keyframe. */
        if(is_keyframe)
        {
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            struct cue_entry *cue, *new_cue_list;

            new_cue_list = realloc(glob->cue_list,
                                   (glob->cues+1) * sizeof(struct cue_entry));
            if(new_cue_list)
                glob->cue_list = new_cue_list;
            else
            {
                fprintf(stderr, "\nFailed to realloc cue list.\n");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }
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            cue = &glob->cue_list[glob->cues];
            cue->time = glob->cluster_timecode;
            cue->loc = glob->cluster_pos;
            glob->cues++;
        }
    }

    /* Write the Simple Block */
    Ebml_WriteID(glob, SimpleBlock);

    block_length = pkt->data.frame.sz + 4;
    block_length |= 0x10000000;
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    Ebml_Serialize(glob, &block_length, sizeof(block_length), 4);
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    track_number = 1;
    track_number |= 0x80;
    Ebml_Write(glob, &track_number, 1);

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    Ebml_Serialize(glob, &block_timecode, sizeof(block_timecode), 2);
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    flags = 0;
    if(is_keyframe)
        flags |= 0x80;
    if(pkt->data.frame.flags & VPX_FRAME_IS_INVISIBLE)
        flags |= 0x08;
    Ebml_Write(glob, &flags, 1);

    Ebml_Write(glob, pkt->data.frame.buf, pkt->data.frame.sz);
}


static void
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write_webm_file_footer(EbmlGlobal *glob, long hash)
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{

    if(glob->cluster_open)
        Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &glob->startCluster);

    {
        EbmlLoc start;
        int i;

        glob->cue_pos = ftello(glob->stream);
        Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &start, Cues);
        for(i=0; i<glob->cues; i++)
        {
            struct cue_entry *cue = &glob->cue_list[i];
            EbmlLoc start;

            Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &start, CuePoint);
            {
                EbmlLoc start;

                Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, CueTime, cue->time);

                Ebml_StartSubElement(glob, &start, CueTrackPositions);
                Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, CueTrack, 1);
                Ebml_SerializeUnsigned64(glob, CueClusterPosition,
                                         cue->loc - glob->position_reference);
                //Ebml_SerializeUnsigned(glob, CueBlockNumber, cue->blockNumber);
                Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &start);
            }
            Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &start);
        }
        Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &start);
    }

    Ebml_EndSubElement(glob, &glob->startSegment);

    /* Patch up the seek info block */
    write_webm_seek_info(glob);
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    /* Patch up the track id */
    fseeko(glob->stream, glob->track_id_pos, SEEK_SET);
    Ebml_SerializeUnsigned32(glob, TrackUID, glob->debug ? 0xDEADBEEF : hash);

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    fseeko(glob->stream, 0, SEEK_END);
}


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/* Murmur hash derived from public domain reference implementation at
 *   http://sites.google.com/site/murmurhash/
 */
static unsigned int murmur ( const void * key, int len, unsigned int seed )
{
    const unsigned int m = 0x5bd1e995;
    const int r = 24;

    unsigned int h = seed ^ len;

    const unsigned char * data = (const unsigned char *)key;

    while(len >= 4)
    {
        unsigned int k;

        k  = data[0];
        k |= data[1] << 8;
        k |= data[2] << 16;
        k |= data[3] << 24;

        k *= m;
        k ^= k >> r;
        k *= m;

        h *= m;
        h ^= k;

        data += 4;
        len -= 4;
    }

    switch(len)
    {
    case 3: h ^= data[2] << 16;
    case 2: h ^= data[1] << 8;
    case 1: h ^= data[0];
            h *= m;
    };

    h ^= h >> 13;
    h *= m;
    h ^= h >> 15;

    return h;
}

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#include "math.h"

static double vp8_mse2psnr(double Samples, double Peak, double Mse)
{
    double psnr;

    if ((double)Mse > 0.0)
        psnr = 10.0 * log10(Peak * Peak * Samples / Mse);
    else
        psnr = 60;      // Limit to prevent / 0

    if (psnr > 60)
        psnr = 60;

    return psnr;
}

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#include "args.h"

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static const arg_def_t debugmode = ARG_DEF("D", "debug", 0,
        "Debug mode (makes output deterministic)");
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static const arg_def_t outputfile = ARG_DEF("o", "output", 1,
        "Output filename");
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static const arg_def_t use_yv12 = ARG_DEF(NULL, "yv12", 0,
                                  "Input file is YV12 ");
static const arg_def_t use_i420 = ARG_DEF(NULL, "i420", 0,
                                  "Input file is I420 (default)");
static const arg_def_t codecarg = ARG_DEF(NULL, "codec", 1,
                                  "Codec to use");
static const arg_def_t passes           = ARG_DEF("p", "passes", 1,
        "Number of passes (1/2)");
static const arg_def_t pass_arg         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "pass", 1,
        "Pass to execute (1/2)");
static const arg_def_t fpf_name         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "fpf", 1,
        "First pass statistics file name");
static const arg_def_t limit = ARG_DEF(NULL, "limit", 1,
                                       "Stop encoding after n input frames");
static const arg_def_t deadline         = ARG_DEF("d", "deadline", 1,
        "Deadline per frame (usec)");
static const arg_def_t best_dl          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "best", 0,
        "Use Best Quality Deadline");
static const arg_def_t good_dl          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "good", 0,
        "Use Good Quality Deadline");
static const arg_def_t rt_dl            = ARG_DEF(NULL, "rt", 0,
        "Use Realtime Quality Deadline");
static const arg_def_t verbosearg       = ARG_DEF("v", "verbose", 0,
        "Show encoder parameters");
static const arg_def_t psnrarg          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "psnr", 0,
        "Show PSNR in status line");
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static const arg_def_t framerate        = ARG_DEF(NULL, "fps", 1,
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        "Stream frame rate (rate/scale)");
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static const arg_def_t use_ivf          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "ivf", 0,
        "Output IVF (default is WebM)");
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static const arg_def_t q_hist_n         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "q-hist", 1,
        "Show quantizer histogram (n-buckets)");
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static const arg_def_t rate_hist_n         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "rate-hist", 1,
        "Show rate histogram (n-buckets)");
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static const arg_def_t *main_args[] =
{
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    &debugmode,
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    &outputfile, &codecarg, &passes, &pass_arg, &fpf_name, &limit, &deadline,
    &best_dl, &good_dl, &rt_dl,
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    &verbosearg, &psnrarg, &use_ivf, &q_hist_n, &rate_hist_n,
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    NULL
};

static const arg_def_t usage            = ARG_DEF("u", "usage", 1,
        "Usage profile number to use");
static const arg_def_t threads          = ARG_DEF("t", "threads", 1,
        "Max number of threads to use");
static const arg_def_t profile          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "profile", 1,
        "Bitstream profile number to use");
static const arg_def_t width            = ARG_DEF("w", "width", 1,
        "Frame width");
static const arg_def_t height           = ARG_DEF("h", "height", 1,
        "Frame height");
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static const struct arg_enum_list stereo_mode_enum[] = {
    {"mono"      , STEREO_FORMAT_MONO},
    {"left-right", STEREO_FORMAT_LEFT_RIGHT},
    {"bottom-top", STEREO_FORMAT_BOTTOM_TOP},
    {"top-bottom", STEREO_FORMAT_TOP_BOTTOM},
    {"right-left", STEREO_FORMAT_RIGHT_LEFT},
    {NULL, 0}
};
static const arg_def_t stereo_mode      = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "stereo-mode", 1,
        "Stereo 3D video format", stereo_mode_enum);
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static const arg_def_t timebase         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "timebase", 1,
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        "Output timestamp precision (fractional seconds)");
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static const arg_def_t error_resilient  = ARG_DEF(NULL, "error-resilient", 1,
        "Enable error resiliency features");
static const arg_def_t lag_in_frames    = ARG_DEF(NULL, "lag-in-frames", 1,
        "Max number of frames to lag");

static const arg_def_t *global_args[] =
{
    &use_yv12, &use_i420, &usage, &threads, &profile,
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    &width, &height, &stereo_mode, &timebase, &framerate, &error_resilient,
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    &lag_in_frames, NULL
};

static const arg_def_t dropframe_thresh   = ARG_DEF(NULL, "drop-frame", 1,
        "Temporal resampling threshold (buf %)");
static const arg_def_t resize_allowed     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "resize-allowed", 1,
        "Spatial resampling enabled (bool)");
static const arg_def_t resize_up_thresh   = ARG_DEF(NULL, "resize-up", 1,
        "Upscale threshold (buf %)");
static const arg_def_t resize_down_thresh = ARG_DEF(NULL, "resize-down", 1,
        "Downscale threshold (buf %)");
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static const struct arg_enum_list end_usage_enum[] = {
    {"vbr", VPX_VBR},
    {"cbr", VPX_CBR},
    {"cq",  VPX_CQ},
    {NULL, 0}
};
static const arg_def_t end_usage          = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "end-usage", 1,
        "Rate control mode", end_usage_enum);
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static const arg_def_t target_bitrate     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "target-bitrate", 1,
        "Bitrate (kbps)");
static const arg_def_t min_quantizer      = ARG_DEF(NULL, "min-q", 1,
        "Minimum (best) quantizer");
static const arg_def_t max_quantizer      = ARG_DEF(NULL, "max-q", 1,
        "Maximum (worst) quantizer");
static const arg_def_t undershoot_pct     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "undershoot-pct", 1,
        "Datarate undershoot (min) target (%)");
static const arg_def_t overshoot_pct      = ARG_DEF(NULL, "overshoot-pct", 1,
        "Datarate overshoot (max) target (%)");
static const arg_def_t buf_sz             = ARG_DEF(NULL, "buf-sz", 1,
        "Client buffer size (ms)");
static const arg_def_t buf_initial_sz     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "buf-initial-sz", 1,
        "Client initial buffer size (ms)");
static const arg_def_t buf_optimal_sz     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "buf-optimal-sz", 1,
        "Client optimal buffer size (ms)");
static const arg_def_t *rc_args[] =
{
    &dropframe_thresh, &resize_allowed, &resize_up_thresh, &resize_down_thresh,
    &end_usage, &target_bitrate, &min_quantizer, &max_quantizer,
    &undershoot_pct, &overshoot_pct, &buf_sz, &buf_initial_sz, &buf_optimal_sz,
    NULL
};


static const arg_def_t bias_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "bias-pct", 1,
                                  "CBR/VBR bias (0=CBR, 100=VBR)");
static const arg_def_t minsection_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "minsection-pct", 1,
                                        "GOP min bitrate (% of target)");
static const arg_def_t maxsection_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "maxsection-pct", 1,
                                        "GOP max bitrate (% of target)");
static const arg_def_t *rc_twopass_args[] =
{
    &bias_pct, &minsection_pct, &maxsection_pct, NULL
};


static const arg_def_t kf_min_dist = ARG_DEF(NULL, "kf-min-dist", 1,
                                     "Minimum keyframe interval (frames)");
static const arg_def_t kf_max_dist = ARG_DEF(NULL, "kf-max-dist", 1,
                                     "Maximum keyframe interval (frames)");
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static const arg_def_t kf_disabled = ARG_DEF(NULL, "disable-kf", 0,
                                     "Disable keyframe placement");
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static const arg_def_t *kf_args[] =
{
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    &kf_min_dist, &kf_max_dist, &kf_disabled, NULL
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};


#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
static const arg_def_t noise_sens = ARG_DEF(NULL, "noise-sensitivity", 1,
                                    "Noise sensitivity (frames to blur)");
static const arg_def_t sharpness = ARG_DEF(NULL, "sharpness", 1,
                                   "Filter sharpness (0-7)");
static const arg_def_t static_thresh = ARG_DEF(NULL, "static-thresh", 1,
                                       "Motion detection threshold");
#endif

#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
static const arg_def_t cpu_used = ARG_DEF(NULL, "cpu-used", 1,
                                  "CPU Used (-16..16)");
#endif


#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
static const arg_def_t token_parts = ARG_DEF(NULL, "token-parts", 1,
                                     "Number of token partitions to use, log2");
static const arg_def_t auto_altref = ARG_DEF(NULL, "auto-alt-ref", 1,
                                     "Enable automatic alt reference frames");
static const arg_def_t arnr_maxframes = ARG_DEF(NULL, "arnr-maxframes", 1,
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                                        "AltRef Max Frames");
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static const arg_def_t arnr_strength = ARG_DEF(NULL, "arnr-strength", 1,
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                                       "AltRef Strength");
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static const arg_def_t arnr_type = ARG_DEF(NULL, "arnr-type", 1,
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                                   "AltRef Type");
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static const struct arg_enum_list tuning_enum[] = {
    {"psnr", VP8_TUNE_PSNR},
    {"ssim", VP8_TUNE_SSIM},
    {NULL, 0}
};
static const arg_def_t tune_ssim = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "tune", 1,
                                   "Material to favor", tuning_enum);
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static const arg_def_t cq_level = ARG_DEF(NULL, "cq-level", 1,
                                   "Constrained Quality Level");
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static const arg_def_t max_intra_rate_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "max-intra-rate", 1,
        "Max I-frame bitrate (pct)");
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static const arg_def_t *vp8_args[] =
{
    &cpu_used, &auto_altref, &noise_sens, &sharpness, &static_thresh,
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    &token_parts, &arnr_maxframes, &arnr_strength, &arnr_type,
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    &tune_ssim, &cq_level, &max_intra_rate_pct, NULL
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};
static const int vp8_arg_ctrl_map[] =
{
    VP8E_SET_CPUUSED, VP8E_SET_ENABLEAUTOALTREF,
    VP8E_SET_NOISE_SENSITIVITY, VP8E_SET_SHARPNESS, VP8E_SET_STATIC_THRESHOLD,
    VP8E_SET_TOKEN_PARTITIONS,
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    VP8E_SET_ARNR_MAXFRAMES, VP8E_SET_ARNR_STRENGTH , VP8E_SET_ARNR_TYPE,
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    VP8E_SET_TUNING, VP8E_SET_CQ_LEVEL, VP8E_SET_MAX_INTRA_BITRATE_PCT, 0
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};
#endif

static const arg_def_t *no_args[] = { NULL };

static void usage_exit()
{
    int i;

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    fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <options> -o dst_filename src_filename \n",
            exec_name);
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nOptions:\n");
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    arg_show_usage(stdout, main_args);
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nEncoder Global Options:\n");
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    arg_show_usage(stdout, global_args);
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nRate Control Options:\n");
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    arg_show_usage(stdout, rc_args);
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nTwopass Rate Control Options:\n");
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    arg_show_usage(stdout, rc_twopass_args);
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nKeyframe Placement Options:\n");
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    arg_show_usage(stdout, kf_args);
#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nVP8 Specific Options:\n");
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    arg_show_usage(stdout, vp8_args);
#endif
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    fprintf(stderr, "\nStream timebase (--timebase):\n"
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            "  The desired precision of timestamps in the output, expressed\n"
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            "  in fractional seconds. Default is 1/1000.\n");
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    fprintf(stderr, "\n"
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           "Included encoders:\n"
           "\n");

    for (i = 0; i < sizeof(codecs) / sizeof(codecs[0]); i++)
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        fprintf(stderr, "    %-6s - %s\n",
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               codecs[i].name,
               vpx_codec_iface_name(codecs[i].iface));

    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

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#define HIST_BAR_MAX 40
struct hist_bucket
{
    int low, high, count;
};


static int merge_hist_buckets(struct hist_bucket *bucket,
                              int *buckets_,
                              int max_buckets)
{
    int small_bucket = 0, merge_bucket = INT_MAX, big_bucket=0;
    int buckets = *buckets_;
    int i;

    /* Find the extrema for this list of buckets */
    big_bucket = small_bucket = 0;
    for(i=0; i < buckets; i++)
    {
        if(bucket[i].count < bucket[small_bucket].count)
            small_bucket = i;
        if(bucket[i].count > bucket[big_bucket].count)
            big_bucket = i;
    }

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    /* If we have too many buckets, merge the smallest with an adjacent
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     * bucket.
     */
    while(buckets > max_buckets)
    {
        int last_bucket = buckets - 1;

        // merge the small bucket with an adjacent one.
        if(small_bucket == 0)
            merge_bucket = 1;
        else if(small_bucket == last_bucket)
            merge_bucket = last_bucket - 1;
        else if(bucket[small_bucket - 1].count < bucket[small_bucket + 1].count)
            merge_bucket = small_bucket - 1;
        else
            merge_bucket = small_bucket + 1;

        assert(abs(merge_bucket - small_bucket) <= 1);
        assert(small_bucket < buckets);
        assert(big_bucket < buckets);
        assert(merge_bucket < buckets);

        if(merge_bucket < small_bucket)
        {
            bucket[merge_bucket].high = bucket[small_bucket].high;
            bucket[merge_bucket].count += bucket[small_bucket].count;
        }
        else
        {
            bucket[small_bucket].high = bucket[merge_bucket].high;
            bucket[small_bucket].count += bucket[merge_bucket].count;
            merge_bucket = small_bucket;
        }

        assert(bucket[merge_bucket].low != bucket[merge_bucket].high);

        buckets--;

        /* Remove the merge_bucket from the list, and find the new small
         * and big buckets while we're at it
         */
        big_bucket = small_bucket = 0;
        for(i=0; i < buckets; i++)
        {
            if(i > merge_bucket)
                bucket[i] = bucket[i+1];

            if(bucket[i].count < bucket[small_bucket].count)
                small_bucket = i;
            if(bucket[i].count > bucket[big_bucket].count)
                big_bucket = i;
        }

    }

    *buckets_ = buckets;
    return bucket[big_bucket].count;
}


static void show_histogram(const struct hist_bucket *bucket,
                           int                       buckets,
                           int                       total,
                           int                       scale)
{
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    const char *pat1, *pat2;
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    int i;

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    switch((int)(log(bucket[buckets-1].high)/log(10))+1)
    {
        case 1:
        case 2:
            pat1 = "%4d %2s: ";
            pat2 = "%4d-%2d: ";
            break;
        case 3:
            pat1 = "%5d %3s: ";
            pat2 = "%5d-%3d: ";
            break;
        case 4:
            pat1 = "%6d %4s: ";
            pat2 = "%6d-%4d: ";
            break;
        case 5:
            pat1 = "%7d %5s: ";
            pat2 = "%7d-%5d: ";
            break;
        case 6:
            pat1 = "%8d %6s: ";
            pat2 = "%8d-%6d: ";
            break;
        case 7:
            pat1 = "%9d %7s: ";
            pat2 = "%9d-%7d: ";
            break;
        default:
            pat1 = "%12d %10s: ";
            pat2 = "%12d-%10d: ";
            break;
    }

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    for(i=0; i<buckets; i++)
    {
        int len;
        int j;
        float pct;

        pct = 100.0 * (float)bucket[i].count / (float)total;
        len = HIST_BAR_MAX * bucket[i].count / scale;
        if(len < 1)
            len = 1;
        assert(len <= HIST_BAR_MAX);

        if(bucket[i].low == bucket[i].high)
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            fprintf(stderr, pat1, bucket[i].low, "");
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        else
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            fprintf(stderr, pat2, bucket[i].low, bucket[i].high);
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        for(j=0; j<HIST_BAR_MAX; j++)
            fprintf(stderr, j<len?"=":" ");
        fprintf(stderr, "\t%5d (%6.2f%%)\n",bucket[i].count,pct);
    }
}


static void show_q_histogram(const int counts[64], int max_buckets)
{
    struct hist_bucket bucket[64];
    int buckets = 0;
    int total = 0;
    int scale;
    int i;


    for(i=0; i<64; i++)
    {
        if(counts[i])
        {
            bucket[buckets].low = bucket[buckets].high = i;
            bucket[buckets].count = counts[i];
            buckets++;
            total += counts[i];
        }
    }

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    fprintf(stderr, "\nQuantizer Selection:\n");
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    scale = merge_hist_buckets(bucket, &buckets, max_buckets);
    show_histogram(bucket, buckets, total, scale);
}


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#define RATE_BINS (100)
struct rate_hist
{
    int64_t            *pts;
    int                *sz;
    int                 samples;
    int                 frames;
    struct hist_bucket  bucket[RATE_BINS];
    int                 total;
};


static void init_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist          *hist,
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                                const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
                                const vpx_rational_t      *fps)
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{
    int i;

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    /* Determine the number of samples in the buffer. Use the file's framerate
     * to determine the number of frames in rc_buf_sz milliseconds, with an
     * adjustment (5/4) to account for alt-refs
     */
    hist->samples = cfg->rc_buf_sz * 5 / 4 * fps->num / fps->den / 1000;
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    // prevent division by zero
    if (hist->samples == 0)
      hist->samples=1;

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    hist->pts = calloc(hist->samples, sizeof(*hist->pts));
    hist->sz = calloc(hist->samples, sizeof(*hist->sz));
    for(i=0; i<RATE_BINS; i++)
    {
        hist->bucket[i].low = INT_MAX;
        hist->bucket[i].high = 0;
        hist->bucket[i].count = 0;
    }
}


static void destroy_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist *hist)
{
    free(hist->pts);
    free(hist->sz);
}


static void update_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist          *hist,
                                  const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
                                  const vpx_codec_cx_pkt_t  *pkt)
{
    int i, idx;
    int64_t now, then, sum_sz = 0, avg_bitrate;

    now = pkt->data.frame.pts * 1000
          * (uint64_t)cfg->g_timebase.num / (uint64_t)cfg->g_timebase.den;

    idx = hist->frames++ % hist->samples;
    hist->pts[idx] = now;
    hist->sz[idx] = pkt->data.frame.sz;

    if(now < cfg->rc_buf_initial_sz)
        return;

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    then = now;

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    /* Sum the size over the past rc_buf_sz ms */
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    for(i = hist->frames; i > 0 && hist->frames - i < hist->samples; i--)
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    {
        int i_idx = (i-1) % hist->samples;

        then = hist->pts[i_idx];
        if(now - then > cfg->rc_buf_sz)
            break;
        sum_sz += hist->sz[i_idx];
    }

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    if (now == then)
        return;

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