rdopt.c 162 KB
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/*
 *  Copyright (c) 2010 The WebM project authors. All Rights Reserved.
 *
 *  Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license
 *  that can be found in the LICENSE file in the root of the source
 *  tree. An additional intellectual property rights grant can be found
 *  in the file PATENTS.  All contributing project authors may
 *  be found in the AUTHORS file in the root of the source tree.
 */

#include <assert.h>
#include <math.h>

#include "./vp10_rtcd.h"
#include "./vpx_dsp_rtcd.h"

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#include "vpx_dsp/vpx_dsp_common.h"
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#include "vpx_mem/vpx_mem.h"
#include "vpx_ports/mem.h"
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#include "vpx_ports/system_state.h"
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#include "vp10/common/common.h"
#include "vp10/common/entropy.h"
#include "vp10/common/entropymode.h"
#include "vp10/common/idct.h"
#include "vp10/common/mvref_common.h"
#include "vp10/common/pred_common.h"
#include "vp10/common/quant_common.h"
#include "vp10/common/reconinter.h"
#include "vp10/common/reconintra.h"
#include "vp10/common/scan.h"
#include "vp10/common/seg_common.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/cost.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/encodemb.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/encodemv.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/encoder.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/mcomp.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/palette.h"
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#include "vp10/encoder/quantize.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/ratectrl.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/rd.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/rdopt.h"
#include "vp10/encoder/aq_variance.h"
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#define LAST_FRAME_MODE_MASK    ((1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << INTRA_FRAME))
#define GOLDEN_FRAME_MODE_MASK  ((1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << INTRA_FRAME))
#define ALT_REF_MODE_MASK       ((1 << LAST_FRAME) | (1 << GOLDEN_FRAME) | \
                                 (1 << INTRA_FRAME))

#define SECOND_REF_FRAME_MASK   ((1 << ALTREF_FRAME) | 0x01)

#define MIN_EARLY_TERM_INDEX    3
#define NEW_MV_DISCOUNT_FACTOR  8

typedef struct {
  PREDICTION_MODE mode;
  MV_REFERENCE_FRAME ref_frame[2];
} MODE_DEFINITION;

typedef struct {
  MV_REFERENCE_FRAME ref_frame[2];
} REF_DEFINITION;

struct rdcost_block_args {
  MACROBLOCK *x;
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT t_above[16];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT t_left[16];
  int this_rate;
  int64_t this_dist;
  int64_t this_sse;
  int64_t this_rd;
  int64_t best_rd;
  int exit_early;
  int use_fast_coef_costing;
  const scan_order *so;
  uint8_t skippable;
};

#define LAST_NEW_MV_INDEX 6
static const MODE_DEFINITION vp10_mode_order[MAX_MODES] = {
  {NEARESTMV, {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
  {NEARESTMV, {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {NEARESTMV, {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},

  {DC_PRED,   {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},

  {NEWMV,     {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
  {NEWMV,     {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {NEWMV,     {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},

  {NEARMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
  {NEARMV,    {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {NEARMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},

  {ZEROMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
  {ZEROMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},
  {ZEROMV,    {ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},

  {NEARESTMV, {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEARESTMV, {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},

  {TM_PRED,   {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},

  {NEARMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEARMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {NEWMV,     {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},

  {ZEROMV,    {LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {ZEROMV,    {GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},

  {H_PRED,    {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {V_PRED,    {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D135_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D207_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D153_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D63_PRED,  {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D117_PRED, {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
  {D45_PRED,  {INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
};

static const REF_DEFINITION vp10_ref_order[MAX_REFS] = {
  {{LAST_FRAME,   NONE}},
  {{GOLDEN_FRAME, NONE}},
  {{ALTREF_FRAME, NONE}},
  {{LAST_FRAME,   ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {{GOLDEN_FRAME, ALTREF_FRAME}},
  {{INTRA_FRAME,  NONE}},
};

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static INLINE int write_uniform_cost(int n, int v) {
  int l = get_unsigned_bits(n), m = (1 << l) - n;
  if (l == 0)
    return 0;
  if (v < m)
    return (l - 1) * vp10_cost_bit(128, 0);
  else
    return l * vp10_cost_bit(128, 0);
}

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static void swap_block_ptr(MACROBLOCK *x, PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx,
                           int m, int n, int min_plane, int max_plane) {
  int i;

  for (i = min_plane; i < max_plane; ++i) {
    struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[i];
    struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &x->e_mbd.plane[i];

    p->coeff    = ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][m];
    p->qcoeff   = ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][m];
    pd->dqcoeff = ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][m];
    p->eobs     = ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][m];

    ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][m]   = ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][n];
    ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][m]  = ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][n];
    ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][m] = ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][n];
    ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][m]    = ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][n];

    ctx->coeff_pbuf[i][n]   = p->coeff;
    ctx->qcoeff_pbuf[i][n]  = p->qcoeff;
    ctx->dqcoeff_pbuf[i][n] = pd->dqcoeff;
    ctx->eobs_pbuf[i][n]    = p->eobs;
  }
}

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static void model_rd_for_sb(VP10_COMP *cpi, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
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                            MACROBLOCK *x, MACROBLOCKD *xd,
                            int *out_rate_sum, int64_t *out_dist_sum,
                            int *skip_txfm_sb, int64_t *skip_sse_sb) {
  // Note our transform coeffs are 8 times an orthogonal transform.
  // Hence quantizer step is also 8 times. To get effective quantizer
  // we need to divide by 8 before sending to modeling function.
  int i;
  int64_t rate_sum = 0;
  int64_t dist_sum = 0;
  const int ref = xd->mi[0]->mbmi.ref_frame[0];
  unsigned int sse;
  unsigned int var = 0;
  unsigned int sum_sse = 0;
  int64_t total_sse = 0;
  int skip_flag = 1;
  const int shift = 6;
  int rate;
  int64_t dist;
  const int dequant_shift =
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) ?
          xd->bd - 5 :
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
          3;

  x->pred_sse[ref] = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < MAX_MB_PLANE; ++i) {
    struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[i];
    struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[i];
    const BLOCK_SIZE bs = get_plane_block_size(bsize, pd);
    const TX_SIZE max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bs];
    const BLOCK_SIZE unit_size = txsize_to_bsize[max_tx_size];
    const int64_t dc_thr = p->quant_thred[0] >> shift;
    const int64_t ac_thr = p->quant_thred[1] >> shift;
    // The low thresholds are used to measure if the prediction errors are
    // low enough so that we can skip the mode search.
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    const int64_t low_dc_thr = VPXMIN(50, dc_thr >> 2);
    const int64_t low_ac_thr = VPXMIN(80, ac_thr >> 2);
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    int bw = 1 << (b_width_log2_lookup[bs] - b_width_log2_lookup[unit_size]);
    int bh = 1 << (b_height_log2_lookup[bs] - b_width_log2_lookup[unit_size]);
    int idx, idy;
    int lw = b_width_log2_lookup[unit_size] + 2;
    int lh = b_height_log2_lookup[unit_size] + 2;

    sum_sse = 0;

    for (idy = 0; idy < bh; ++idy) {
      for (idx = 0; idx < bw; ++idx) {
        uint8_t *src = p->src.buf + (idy * p->src.stride << lh) + (idx << lw);
        uint8_t *dst = pd->dst.buf + (idy * pd->dst.stride << lh) + (idx << lh);
        int block_idx = (idy << 1) + idx;
        int low_err_skip = 0;

        var = cpi->fn_ptr[unit_size].vf(src, p->src.stride,
                                        dst, pd->dst.stride, &sse);
        x->bsse[(i << 2) + block_idx] = sse;
        sum_sse += sse;

        x->skip_txfm[(i << 2) + block_idx] = SKIP_TXFM_NONE;
        if (!x->select_tx_size) {
          // Check if all ac coefficients can be quantized to zero.
          if (var < ac_thr || var == 0) {
            x->skip_txfm[(i << 2) + block_idx] = SKIP_TXFM_AC_ONLY;

            // Check if dc coefficient can be quantized to zero.
            if (sse - var < dc_thr || sse == var) {
              x->skip_txfm[(i << 2) + block_idx] = SKIP_TXFM_AC_DC;

              if (!sse || (var < low_ac_thr && sse - var < low_dc_thr))
                low_err_skip = 1;
            }
          }
        }

        if (skip_flag && !low_err_skip)
          skip_flag = 0;

        if (i == 0)
          x->pred_sse[ref] += sse;
      }
    }

    total_sse += sum_sse;

    // Fast approximate the modelling function.
    if (cpi->sf.simple_model_rd_from_var) {
      int64_t rate;
      const int64_t square_error = sum_sse;
      int quantizer = (pd->dequant[1] >> dequant_shift);

      if (quantizer < 120)
        rate = (square_error * (280 - quantizer)) >> 8;
      else
        rate = 0;
      dist = (square_error * quantizer) >> 8;
      rate_sum += rate;
      dist_sum += dist;
    } else {
      vp10_model_rd_from_var_lapndz(sum_sse, num_pels_log2_lookup[bs],
                                   pd->dequant[1] >> dequant_shift,
                                   &rate, &dist);
      rate_sum += rate;
      dist_sum += dist;
    }
  }

  *skip_txfm_sb = skip_flag;
  *skip_sse_sb = total_sse << 4;
  *out_rate_sum = (int)rate_sum;
  *out_dist_sum = dist_sum << 4;
}

int64_t vp10_block_error_c(const tran_low_t *coeff, const tran_low_t *dqcoeff,
                          intptr_t block_size, int64_t *ssz) {
  int i;
  int64_t error = 0, sqcoeff = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
    const int diff = coeff[i] - dqcoeff[i];
    error +=  diff * diff;
    sqcoeff += coeff[i] * coeff[i];
  }

  *ssz = sqcoeff;
  return error;
}

int64_t vp10_block_error_fp_c(const int16_t *coeff, const int16_t *dqcoeff,
                             int block_size) {
  int i;
  int64_t error = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
    const int diff = coeff[i] - dqcoeff[i];
    error +=  diff * diff;
  }

  return error;
}

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
int64_t vp10_highbd_block_error_c(const tran_low_t *coeff,
                                 const tran_low_t *dqcoeff,
                                 intptr_t block_size,
                                 int64_t *ssz, int bd) {
  int i;
  int64_t error = 0, sqcoeff = 0;
  int shift = 2 * (bd - 8);
  int rounding = shift > 0 ? 1 << (shift - 1) : 0;

  for (i = 0; i < block_size; i++) {
    const int64_t diff = coeff[i] - dqcoeff[i];
    error +=  diff * diff;
    sqcoeff += (int64_t)coeff[i] * (int64_t)coeff[i];
  }
  assert(error >= 0 && sqcoeff >= 0);
  error = (error + rounding) >> shift;
  sqcoeff = (sqcoeff + rounding) >> shift;

  *ssz = sqcoeff;
  return error;
}
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

/* The trailing '0' is a terminator which is used inside cost_coeffs() to
 * decide whether to include cost of a trailing EOB node or not (i.e. we
 * can skip this if the last coefficient in this transform block, e.g. the
 * 16th coefficient in a 4x4 block or the 64th coefficient in a 8x8 block,
 * were non-zero). */
static const int16_t band_counts[TX_SIZES][8] = {
  { 1, 2, 3, 4,  3,   16 - 13, 0 },
  { 1, 2, 3, 4, 11,   64 - 21, 0 },
  { 1, 2, 3, 4, 11,  256 - 21, 0 },
  { 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 1024 - 21, 0 },
};
static int cost_coeffs(MACROBLOCK *x,
                       int plane, int block,
                       ENTROPY_CONTEXT *A, ENTROPY_CONTEXT *L,
                       TX_SIZE tx_size,
                       const int16_t *scan, const int16_t *nb,
                       int use_fast_coef_costing) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  const struct macroblock_plane *p = &x->plane[plane];
  const struct macroblockd_plane *pd = &xd->plane[plane];
  const PLANE_TYPE type = pd->plane_type;
  const int16_t *band_count = &band_counts[tx_size][1];
  const int eob = p->eobs[block];
  const tran_low_t *const qcoeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(p->qcoeff, block);
  unsigned int (*token_costs)[2][COEFF_CONTEXTS][ENTROPY_TOKENS] =
                   x->token_costs[tx_size][type][is_inter_block(mbmi)];
  uint8_t token_cache[32 * 32];
  int pt = combine_entropy_contexts(*A, *L);
  int c, cost;
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  const int16_t *cat6_high_cost = vp10_get_high_cost_table(xd->bd);
#else
  const int16_t *cat6_high_cost = vp10_get_high_cost_table(8);
#endif

  // Check for consistency of tx_size with mode info
  assert(type == PLANE_TYPE_Y ? mbmi->tx_size == tx_size
                              : get_uv_tx_size(mbmi, pd) == tx_size);

  if (eob == 0) {
    // single eob token
    cost = token_costs[0][0][pt][EOB_TOKEN];
    c = 0;
  } else {
    int band_left = *band_count++;

    // dc token
    int v = qcoeff[0];
    int16_t prev_t;
    EXTRABIT e;
    vp10_get_token_extra(v, &prev_t, &e);
    cost = (*token_costs)[0][pt][prev_t] +
        vp10_get_cost(prev_t, e, cat6_high_cost);

    token_cache[0] = vp10_pt_energy_class[prev_t];
    ++token_costs;

    // ac tokens
    for (c = 1; c < eob; c++) {
      const int rc = scan[c];
      int16_t t;

      v = qcoeff[rc];
      vp10_get_token_extra(v, &t, &e);
      if (use_fast_coef_costing) {
        cost += (*token_costs)[!prev_t][!prev_t][t] +
            vp10_get_cost(t, e, cat6_high_cost);
      } else {
        pt = get_coef_context(nb, token_cache, c);
        cost += (*token_costs)[!prev_t][pt][t] +
            vp10_get_cost(t, e, cat6_high_cost);
        token_cache[rc] = vp10_pt_energy_class[t];
      }
      prev_t = t;
      if (!--band_left) {
        band_left = *band_count++;
        ++token_costs;
      }
    }

    // eob token
    if (band_left) {
      if (use_fast_coef_costing) {
        cost += (*token_costs)[0][!prev_t][EOB_TOKEN];
      } else {
        pt = get_coef_context(nb, token_cache, c);
        cost += (*token_costs)[0][pt][EOB_TOKEN];
      }
    }
  }

  // is eob first coefficient;
  *A = *L = (c > 0);

  return cost;
}

static void dist_block(MACROBLOCK *x, int plane, int block, TX_SIZE tx_size,
                       int64_t *out_dist, int64_t *out_sse) {
  const int ss_txfrm_size = tx_size << 1;
  MACROBLOCKD* const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  const struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[plane];
  const struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[plane];
  int64_t this_sse;
  int shift = tx_size == TX_32X32 ? 0 : 2;
  tran_low_t *const coeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(p->coeff, block);
  tran_low_t *const dqcoeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block);
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  const int bd = (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) ? xd->bd : 8;
  *out_dist = vp10_highbd_block_error(coeff, dqcoeff, 16 << ss_txfrm_size,
                                     &this_sse, bd) >> shift;
#else
  *out_dist = vp10_block_error(coeff, dqcoeff, 16 << ss_txfrm_size,
                              &this_sse) >> shift;
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  *out_sse = this_sse >> shift;
}

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static int rate_block(int plane, int block, int blk_row, int blk_col,
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                      TX_SIZE tx_size, struct rdcost_block_args* args) {
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  return cost_coeffs(args->x, plane, block, args->t_above + blk_col,
                     args->t_left + blk_row, tx_size,
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                     args->so->scan, args->so->neighbors,
                     args->use_fast_coef_costing);
}

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static void block_rd_txfm(int plane, int block, int blk_row, int blk_col,
                          BLOCK_SIZE plane_bsize,
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                          TX_SIZE tx_size, void *arg) {
  struct rdcost_block_args *args = arg;
  MACROBLOCK *const x = args->x;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  int64_t rd1, rd2, rd;
  int rate;
  int64_t dist;
  int64_t sse;

  if (args->exit_early)
    return;

  if (!is_inter_block(mbmi)) {
    struct encode_b_args arg = {x, NULL, &mbmi->skip};
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    vp10_encode_block_intra(plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                            plane_bsize, tx_size, &arg);
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    dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
  } else if (max_txsize_lookup[plane_bsize] == tx_size) {
    if (x->skip_txfm[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] ==
        SKIP_TXFM_NONE) {
      // full forward transform and quantization
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      vp10_xform_quant(x, plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                       plane_bsize, tx_size);
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      dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
    } else if (x->skip_txfm[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] ==
               SKIP_TXFM_AC_ONLY) {
      // compute DC coefficient
      tran_low_t *const coeff   = BLOCK_OFFSET(x->plane[plane].coeff, block);
      tran_low_t *const dqcoeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(xd->plane[plane].dqcoeff, block);
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      vp10_xform_quant_dc(x, plane, block, blk_row, blk_col,
                          plane_bsize, tx_size);
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      sse  = x->bsse[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] << 4;
      dist = sse;
      if (x->plane[plane].eobs[block]) {
        const int64_t orig_sse = (int64_t)coeff[0] * coeff[0];
        const int64_t resd_sse = coeff[0] - dqcoeff[0];
        int64_t dc_correct = orig_sse - resd_sse * resd_sse;
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
        dc_correct >>= ((xd->bd - 8) * 2);
#endif
        if (tx_size != TX_32X32)
          dc_correct >>= 2;

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        dist = VPXMAX(0, sse - dc_correct);
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      }
    } else {
      // SKIP_TXFM_AC_DC
      // skip forward transform
      x->plane[plane].eobs[block] = 0;
      sse  = x->bsse[(plane << 2) + (block >> (tx_size << 1))] << 4;
      dist = sse;
    }
  } else {
    // full forward transform and quantization
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    vp10_xform_quant(x, plane, block, blk_row, blk_col, plane_bsize, tx_size);
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    dist_block(x, plane, block, tx_size, &dist, &sse);
  }

  rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, 0, dist);
  if (args->this_rd + rd > args->best_rd) {
    args->exit_early = 1;
    return;
  }

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  rate = rate_block(plane, block, blk_row, blk_col, tx_size, args);
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  rd1 = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, rate, dist);
  rd2 = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, 0, sse);

  // TODO(jingning): temporarily enabled only for luma component
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  rd = VPXMIN(rd1, rd2);
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  if (plane == 0)
    x->zcoeff_blk[tx_size][block] = !x->plane[plane].eobs[block] ||
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        (rd1 > rd2 && !xd->lossless[mbmi->segment_id]);
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  args->this_rate += rate;
  args->this_dist += dist;
  args->this_sse += sse;
  args->this_rd += rd;

  if (args->this_rd > args->best_rd) {
    args->exit_early = 1;
    return;
  }

  args->skippable &= !x->plane[plane].eobs[block];
}

static void txfm_rd_in_plane(MACROBLOCK *x,
                             int *rate, int64_t *distortion,
                             int *skippable, int64_t *sse,
                             int64_t ref_best_rd, int plane,
                             BLOCK_SIZE bsize, TX_SIZE tx_size,
                             int use_fast_coef_casting) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  const struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[plane];
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  TX_TYPE tx_type;
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  struct rdcost_block_args args;
  vp10_zero(args);
  args.x = x;
  args.best_rd = ref_best_rd;
  args.use_fast_coef_costing = use_fast_coef_casting;
  args.skippable = 1;

  if (plane == 0)
    xd->mi[0]->mbmi.tx_size = tx_size;

  vp10_get_entropy_contexts(bsize, tx_size, pd, args.t_above, args.t_left);

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  tx_type = get_tx_type(pd->plane_type, xd, 0);
  args.so = get_scan(tx_size, tx_type);
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  vp10_foreach_transformed_block_in_plane(xd, bsize, plane,
                                         block_rd_txfm, &args);
  if (args.exit_early) {
    *rate       = INT_MAX;
    *distortion = INT64_MAX;
    *sse        = INT64_MAX;
    *skippable  = 0;
  } else {
    *distortion = args.this_dist;
    *rate       = args.this_rate;
    *sse        = args.this_sse;
    *skippable  = args.skippable;
  }
}

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static void choose_largest_tx_size(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                   int *rate, int64_t *distortion,
                                   int *skip, int64_t *sse,
                                   int64_t ref_best_rd,
                                   BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  const TX_SIZE max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bs];
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  VP10_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  const TX_SIZE largest_tx_size = tx_mode_to_biggest_tx_size[cm->tx_mode];
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;

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  mbmi->tx_size = VPXMIN(max_tx_size, largest_tx_size);
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  txfm_rd_in_plane(x, rate, distortion, skip,
                   sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs,
                   mbmi->tx_size, cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
}

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static void choose_smallest_tx_size(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
                                    int *rate, int64_t *distortion,
                                    int *skip, int64_t *sse,
                                    int64_t ref_best_rd,
                                    BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;

  mbmi->tx_size = TX_4X4;

  txfm_rd_in_plane(x, rate, distortion, skip,
                   sse, ref_best_rd, 0, bs,
                   mbmi->tx_size, cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
}

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static void choose_tx_size_from_rd(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                   int *rate,
                                   int64_t *distortion,
                                   int *skip,
                                   int64_t *psse,
                                   int64_t ref_best_rd,
                                   BLOCK_SIZE bs) {
  const TX_SIZE max_tx_size = max_txsize_lookup[bs];
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  VP10_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  vpx_prob skip_prob = vp10_get_skip_prob(cm, xd);
  int r[TX_SIZES][2], s[TX_SIZES];
  int64_t d[TX_SIZES], sse[TX_SIZES];
  int64_t rd[TX_SIZES][2] = {{INT64_MAX, INT64_MAX},
                             {INT64_MAX, INT64_MAX},
                             {INT64_MAX, INT64_MAX},
                             {INT64_MAX, INT64_MAX}};
  int n, m;
  int s0, s1;
  int64_t best_rd = INT64_MAX;
  TX_SIZE best_tx = max_tx_size;
  int start_tx, end_tx;

  const vpx_prob *tx_probs = get_tx_probs2(max_tx_size, xd, &cm->fc->tx_probs);
  assert(skip_prob > 0);
  s0 = vp10_cost_bit(skip_prob, 0);
  s1 = vp10_cost_bit(skip_prob, 1);

  if (cm->tx_mode == TX_MODE_SELECT) {
    start_tx = max_tx_size;
    end_tx = 0;
  } else {
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    TX_SIZE chosen_tx_size = VPXMIN(max_tx_size,
                                    tx_mode_to_biggest_tx_size[cm->tx_mode]);
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    start_tx = chosen_tx_size;
    end_tx = chosen_tx_size;
  }

  for (n = start_tx; n >= end_tx; n--) {
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    int r_tx_size = 0;
    for (m = 0; m <= n - (n == (int) max_tx_size); m++) {
      if (m == n)
        r_tx_size += vp10_cost_zero(tx_probs[m]);
      else
        r_tx_size += vp10_cost_one(tx_probs[m]);
    }
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    txfm_rd_in_plane(x, &r[n][0], &d[n], &s[n],
                     &sse[n], ref_best_rd, 0, bs, n,
                     cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
    r[n][1] = r[n][0];
    if (r[n][0] < INT_MAX) {
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      r[n][1] += r_tx_size;
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    }
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    if (d[n] == INT64_MAX || r[n][0] == INT_MAX) {
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      rd[n][0] = rd[n][1] = INT64_MAX;
    } else if (s[n]) {
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      if (is_inter_block(mbmi)) {
        rd[n][0] = rd[n][1] = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, sse[n]);
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        r[n][1] -= r_tx_size;
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      } else {
        rd[n][0] = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, sse[n]);
        rd[n][1] = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1 + r_tx_size, sse[n]);
      }
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    } else {
      rd[n][0] = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, r[n][0] + s0, d[n]);
      rd[n][1] = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, r[n][1] + s0, d[n]);
    }

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    if (is_inter_block(mbmi) && !xd->lossless[mbmi->segment_id] &&
        !s[n] && sse[n] != INT64_MAX) {
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      rd[n][0] = VPXMIN(rd[n][0], RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, sse[n]));
      rd[n][1] = VPXMIN(rd[n][1], RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, s1, sse[n]));
    }

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    // Early termination in transform size search.
    if (cpi->sf.tx_size_search_breakout &&
        (rd[n][1] == INT64_MAX ||
        (n < (int) max_tx_size && rd[n][1] > rd[n + 1][1]) ||
        s[n] == 1))
      break;

    if (rd[n][1] < best_rd) {
      best_tx = n;
      best_rd = rd[n][1];
    }
  }
  mbmi->tx_size = best_tx;

  *distortion = d[mbmi->tx_size];
  *rate       = r[mbmi->tx_size][cm->tx_mode == TX_MODE_SELECT];
  *skip       = s[mbmi->tx_size];
  *psse       = sse[mbmi->tx_size];
}

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static void super_block_yrd(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x, int *rate,
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                            int64_t *distortion, int *skip,
                            int64_t *psse, BLOCK_SIZE bs,
                            int64_t ref_best_rd) {
  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
  int64_t sse;
  int64_t *ret_sse = psse ? psse : &sse;

  assert(bs == xd->mi[0]->mbmi.sb_type);

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  if (CONFIG_MISC_FIXES && xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id]) {
    choose_smallest_tx_size(cpi, x, rate, distortion, skip, ret_sse,
                            ref_best_rd, bs);
  } else if (cpi->sf.tx_size_search_method == USE_LARGESTALL ||
             xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id]) {
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    choose_largest_tx_size(cpi, x, rate, distortion, skip, ret_sse, ref_best_rd,
                           bs);
  } else {
    choose_tx_size_from_rd(cpi, x, rate, distortion, skip, ret_sse,
                           ref_best_rd, bs);
  }
}

static int conditional_skipintra(PREDICTION_MODE mode,
                                 PREDICTION_MODE best_intra_mode) {
  if (mode == D117_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != V_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D135_PRED)
    return 1;
  if (mode == D63_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != V_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D45_PRED)
    return 1;
  if (mode == D207_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != H_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D45_PRED)
    return 1;
  if (mode == D153_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != H_PRED &&
      best_intra_mode != D135_PRED)
    return 1;
  return 0;
}

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void rd_pick_palette_intra_sby(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                               int palette_ctx, int dc_mode_cost,
                               PALETTE_MODE_INFO *palette_mode_info,
                               uint8_t *best_palette_color_map,
                               TX_SIZE *best_tx, PREDICTION_MODE *mode_selected,
                               int64_t *best_rd) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MODE_INFO *const mic = xd->mi[0];
  int rows = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  int cols = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  int this_rate, this_rate_tokenonly, s;
  int64_t this_distortion, this_rd;
  int colors, n;
  int src_stride = x->plane[0].src.stride;
  uint8_t *src = x->plane[0].src.buf;

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth)
    colors = vp10_count_colors_highbd(src, src_stride, rows, cols,
                                      cpi->common.bit_depth);
  else
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    colors = vp10_count_colors(src, src_stride, rows, cols);
  palette_mode_info->palette_size[0] = 0;

  if (colors > 1 && colors <= 64 && cpi->common.allow_screen_content_tools) {
    int r, c, i, j, k;
    int max_itr = 50;
    int color_ctx, color_idx = 0;
    int color_order[PALETTE_MAX_SIZE];
    double *data = x->palette_buffer->kmeans_data_buf;
    uint8_t *indices = x->palette_buffer->kmeans_indices_buf;
    uint8_t *pre_indices = x->palette_buffer->kmeans_pre_indices_buf;
    double centroids[PALETTE_MAX_SIZE];
    uint8_t *color_map;
    double lb, ub, val;
    PALETTE_MODE_INFO *pmi = &mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info;
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    uint16_t *src16 = CONVERT_TO_SHORTPTR(src);
    if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth)
      lb = ub = src16[0];
    else
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      lb = ub = src[0];

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth) {
      for (r = 0; r < rows; ++r) {
        for (c = 0; c < cols; ++c) {
          val = src16[r * src_stride + c];
          data[r * cols + c] = val;
          if (val < lb)
            lb = val;
          else if (val > ub)
            ub = val;
        }
      }
    } else {
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      for (r = 0; r < rows; ++r) {
        for (c = 0; c < cols; ++c) {
          val = src[r * src_stride + c];
          data[r * cols + c] = val;
          if (val < lb)
            lb = val;
          else if (val > ub)
            ub = val;
        }
      }
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
    }
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

    mic->mbmi.mode = DC_PRED;

    for (n = colors > PALETTE_MAX_SIZE ? PALETTE_MAX_SIZE : colors;
        n >= 2; --n) {
      for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
        centroids[i] = lb + (2 * i + 1) * (ub - lb) / n / 2;
      vp10_k_means(data, centroids, indices, pre_indices, rows * cols,
                   n, 1, max_itr);
      vp10_insertion_sort(centroids, n);
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      for (i = 0; i < n; ++i)
        centroids[i] = round(centroids[i]);
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      // remove duplicates
      i = 1;
      k = n;
      while (i < k) {
        if (centroids[i] == centroids[i - 1]) {
          j = i;
          while (j < k - 1) {
            centroids[j] = centroids[j + 1];
            ++j;
          }
          --k;
        } else {
          ++i;
        }
      }

#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      if (cpi->common.use_highbitdepth)
        for (i = 0; i < k; ++i)
          mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_colors[i] =
              clip_pixel_highbd(round(centroids[i]), cpi->common.bit_depth);
      else
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
        for (i = 0; i < k; ++i)
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          pmi->palette_colors[i] = clip_pixel((int)round(centroids[i]));
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      pmi->palette_size[0] = k;

      vp10_calc_indices(data, centroids, indices, rows * cols, k, 1);
      for (r = 0; r < rows; ++r)
        for (c = 0; c < cols; ++c)
          xd->plane[0].color_index_map[r * cols + c] = indices[r * cols + c];

      super_block_yrd(cpi, x, &this_rate_tokenonly, &this_distortion,
                      &s, NULL, bsize, *best_rd);
      if (this_rate_tokenonly == INT_MAX)
        continue;

      this_rate = this_rate_tokenonly + dc_mode_cost +
          cpi->common.bit_depth * k * vp10_cost_bit(128, 0) +
          cpi->palette_y_size_cost[bsize - BLOCK_8X8][k - 2];
      this_rate +=
          vp10_cost_bit(vp10_default_palette_y_mode_prob[bsize - BLOCK_8X8]
                                                         [palette_ctx], 1);
      color_map = xd->plane[0].color_index_map;
      this_rate +=  write_uniform_cost(k, xd->plane[0].color_index_map[0]);
      for (i = 0; i < rows; ++i) {
        for (j = (i == 0 ? 1 : 0); j < cols; ++j) {
          color_ctx = vp10_get_palette_color_context(color_map, cols, i, j,
                                                     k, color_order);
          for (r = 0; r < k; ++r)
            if (color_map[i * cols + j] == color_order[r]) {
              color_idx = r;
              break;
            }
          assert(color_idx < k);
          this_rate +=
              cpi->palette_y_color_cost[k - 2][color_ctx][color_idx];
        }
      }
      this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, this_rate, this_distortion);

      if (this_rd < *best_rd) {
        *best_rd = this_rd;
        *palette_mode_info = mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info;
        memcpy(best_palette_color_map, xd->plane[0].color_index_map,
               rows * cols * sizeof(xd->plane[0].color_index_map[0]));
        *mode_selected = DC_PRED;
        *best_tx = mic->mbmi.tx_size;
      }
    }
  }
}

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static int64_t rd_pick_intra4x4block(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                     int row, int col,
                                     PREDICTION_MODE *best_mode,
                                     const int *bmode_costs,
                                     ENTROPY_CONTEXT *a, ENTROPY_CONTEXT *l,
                                     int *bestrate, int *bestratey,
                                     int64_t *bestdistortion,
                                     BLOCK_SIZE bsize, int64_t rd_thresh) {
  PREDICTION_MODE mode;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  int64_t best_rd = rd_thresh;
  struct macroblock_plane *p = &x->plane[0];
  struct macroblockd_plane *pd = &xd->plane[0];
  const int src_stride = p->src.stride;
  const int dst_stride = pd->dst.stride;
  const uint8_t *src_init = &p->src.buf[row * 4 * src_stride + col * 4];
  uint8_t *dst_init = &pd->dst.buf[row * 4 * src_stride + col * 4];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT ta[2], tempa[2];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT tl[2], templ[2];
  const int num_4x4_blocks_wide = num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  const int num_4x4_blocks_high = num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  int idx, idy;
  uint8_t best_dst[8 * 8];
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  uint16_t best_dst16[8 * 8];
#endif

  memcpy(ta, a, sizeof(ta));
  memcpy(tl, l, sizeof(tl));
  xd->mi[0]->mbmi.tx_size = TX_4X4;
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  xd->mi[0]->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] = 0;
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#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  if (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) {
    for (mode = DC_PRED; mode <= TM_PRED; ++mode) {
      int64_t this_rd;
      int ratey = 0;
      int64_t distortion = 0;
      int rate = bmode_costs[mode];

      if (!(cpi->sf.intra_y_mode_mask[TX_4X4] & (1 << mode)))
        continue;

      // Only do the oblique modes if the best so far is
      // one of the neighboring directional modes
      if (cpi->sf.mode_search_skip_flags & FLAG_SKIP_INTRA_DIRMISMATCH) {
        if (conditional_skipintra(mode, *best_mode))
            continue;
      }

      memcpy(tempa, ta, sizeof(ta));
      memcpy(templ, tl, sizeof(tl));

      for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high; ++idy) {
        for (idx = 0; idx < num_4x4_blocks_wide; ++idx) {
          const int block = (row + idy) * 2 + (col + idx);
          const uint8_t *const src = &src_init[idx * 4 + idy * 4 * src_stride];
          uint8_t *const dst = &dst_init[idx * 4 + idy * 4 * dst_stride];
          int16_t *const src_diff = vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8,
                                                                  block,
                                                                  p->src_diff);
          tran_low_t *const coeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(x->plane[0].coeff, block);
          xd->mi[0]->bmi[block].as_mode = mode;
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          vp10_predict_intra_block(xd, 1, 1, TX_4X4, mode, dst, dst_stride,
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                                  dst, dst_stride,
                                  col + idx, row + idy, 0);
          vpx_highbd_subtract_block(4, 4, src_diff, 8, src, src_stride,
                                    dst, dst_stride, xd->bd);
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          if (xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id]) {
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            TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, block);
            const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type);
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            vp10_highbd_fwd_txfm_4x4(src_diff, coeff, 8, DCT_DCT, 1);
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            vp10_regular_quantize_b_4x4(x, 0, block, so->scan, so->iscan);
            ratey += cost_coeffs(x, 0, block, tempa + idx, templ + idy, TX_4X4,
                                 so->scan, so->neighbors,
                                 cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
            if (RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, ratey, distortion) >= best_rd)
              goto next_highbd;
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            vp10_highbd_inv_txfm_add_4x4(BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
                                         dst, dst_stride, p->eobs[block],
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                                         xd->bd, DCT_DCT, 1);
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          } else {
            int64_t unused;
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            TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, block);
            const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type);
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            vp10_highbd_fwd_txfm_4x4(src_diff, coeff, 8, tx_type, 0);
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            vp10_regular_quantize_b_4x4(x, 0, block, so->scan, so->iscan);
            ratey += cost_coeffs(x, 0, block, tempa + idx, templ + idy, TX_4X4,
                                 so->scan, so->neighbors,
                                 cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
            distortion += vp10_highbd_block_error(
                coeff, BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
                16, &unused, xd->bd) >> 2;
            if (RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, ratey, distortion) >= best_rd)
              goto next_highbd;
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            vp10_highbd_inv_txfm_add_4x4(BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
                                         dst, dst_stride, p->eobs[block],
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                                         xd->bd, tx_type, 0);
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          }
        }
      }

      rate += ratey;
      this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, rate, distortion);

      if (this_rd < best_rd) {
        *bestrate = rate;
        *bestratey = ratey;
        *bestdistortion = distortion;
        best_rd = this_rd;
        *best_mode = mode;
        memcpy(a, tempa, sizeof(tempa));
        memcpy(l, templ, sizeof(templ));
        for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high * 4; ++idy) {
          memcpy(best_dst16 + idy * 8,
                 CONVERT_TO_SHORTPTR(dst_init + idy * dst_stride),
                 num_4x4_blocks_wide * 4 * sizeof(uint16_t));
        }
      }
    next_highbd:
      {}
    }
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    if (best_rd >= rd_thresh)
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      return best_rd;

    for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high * 4; ++idy) {
      memcpy(CONVERT_TO_SHORTPTR(dst_init + idy * dst_stride),
             best_dst16 + idy * 8,
             num_4x4_blocks_wide * 4 * sizeof(uint16_t));
    }

    return best_rd;
  }
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

  for (mode = DC_PRED; mode <= TM_PRED; ++mode) {
    int64_t this_rd;
    int ratey = 0;
    int64_t distortion = 0;
    int rate = bmode_costs[mode];

    if (!(cpi->sf.intra_y_mode_mask[TX_4X4] & (1 << mode)))
      continue;

    // Only do the oblique modes if the best so far is
    // one of the neighboring directional modes
    if (cpi->sf.mode_search_skip_flags & FLAG_SKIP_INTRA_DIRMISMATCH) {
      if (conditional_skipintra(mode, *best_mode))
          continue;
    }

    memcpy(tempa, ta, sizeof(ta));
    memcpy(templ, tl, sizeof(tl));

    for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high; ++idy) {
      for (idx = 0; idx < num_4x4_blocks_wide; ++idx) {
        const int block = (row + idy) * 2 + (col + idx);
        const uint8_t *const src = &src_init[idx * 4 + idy * 4 * src_stride];
        uint8_t *const dst = &dst_init[idx * 4 + idy * 4 * dst_stride];
        int16_t *const src_diff =
            vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8, block, p->src_diff);
        tran_low_t *const coeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(x->plane[0].coeff, block);
        xd->mi[0]->bmi[block].as_mode = mode;
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        vp10_predict_intra_block(xd, 1, 1, TX_4X4, mode, dst, dst_stride,
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                                dst, dst_stride, col + idx, row + idy, 0);
        vpx_subtract_block(4, 4, src_diff, 8, src, src_stride, dst, dst_stride);

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        if (xd->lossless[xd->mi[0]->mbmi.segment_id]) {
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          TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, block);
          const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type);
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          vp10_fwd_txfm_4x4(src_diff, coeff, 8, DCT_DCT, 1);
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          vp10_regular_quantize_b_4x4(x, 0, block, so->scan, so->iscan);
          ratey += cost_coeffs(x, 0, block, tempa + idx, templ + idy, TX_4X4,
                               so->scan, so->neighbors,
                               cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
          if (RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, ratey, distortion) >= best_rd)
            goto next;
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          vp10_inv_txfm_add_4x4(BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
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                                dst, dst_stride, p->eobs[block], DCT_DCT, 1);
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        } else {
          int64_t unused;
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          TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, block);
          const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type);
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          vp10_fwd_txfm_4x4(src_diff, coeff, 8, tx_type, 0);
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          vp10_regular_quantize_b_4x4(x, 0, block, so->scan, so->iscan);
          ratey += cost_coeffs(x, 0, block, tempa + idx, templ + idy, TX_4X4,
                             so->scan, so->neighbors,
                             cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
          distortion += vp10_block_error(coeff, BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
                                        16, &unused) >> 2;
          if (RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, ratey, distortion) >= best_rd)
            goto next;
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          vp10_inv_txfm_add_4x4(BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, block),
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                                dst, dst_stride, p->eobs[block], tx_type, 0);
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        }
      }
    }

    rate += ratey;
    this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, rate, distortion);

    if (this_rd < best_rd) {
      *bestrate = rate;
      *bestratey = ratey;
      *bestdistortion = distortion;
      best_rd = this_rd;
      *best_mode = mode;
      memcpy(a, tempa, sizeof(tempa));
      memcpy(l, templ, sizeof(templ));
      for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high * 4; ++idy)
        memcpy(best_dst + idy * 8, dst_init + idy * dst_stride,
               num_4x4_blocks_wide * 4);
    }
  next:
    {}
  }

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  if (best_rd >= rd_thresh)
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    return best_rd;

  for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high * 4; ++idy)
    memcpy(dst_init + idy * dst_stride, best_dst + idy * 8,
           num_4x4_blocks_wide * 4);

  return best_rd;
}

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static int64_t rd_pick_intra_sub_8x8_y_mode(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *mb,
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                                            int *rate, int *rate_y,
                                            int64_t *distortion,
                                            int64_t best_rd) {
  int i, j;
  const MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &mb->e_mbd;
  MODE_INFO *const mic = xd->mi[0];
  const MODE_INFO *above_mi = xd->above_mi;
  const MODE_INFO *left_mi = xd->left_mi;
  const BLOCK_SIZE bsize = xd->mi[0]->mbmi.sb_type;
  const int num_4x4_blocks_wide = num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  const int num_4x4_blocks_high = num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  int idx, idy;
  int cost = 0;
  int64_t total_distortion = 0;
  int tot_rate_y = 0;
  int64_t total_rd = 0;
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT t_above[4], t_left[4];
  const int *bmode_costs = cpi->mbmode_cost;

  memcpy(t_above, xd->plane[0].above_context, sizeof(t_above));
  memcpy(t_left, xd->plane[0].left_context, sizeof(t_left));

  // Pick modes for each sub-block (of size 4x4, 4x8, or 8x4) in an 8x8 block.
  for (idy = 0; idy < 2; idy += num_4x4_blocks_high) {
    for (idx = 0; idx < 2; idx += num_4x4_blocks_wide) {
      PREDICTION_MODE best_mode = DC_PRED;
      int r = INT_MAX, ry = INT_MAX;
      int64_t d = INT64_MAX, this_rd = INT64_MAX;
      i = idy * 2 + idx;
      if (cpi->common.frame_type == KEY_FRAME) {
        const PREDICTION_MODE A = vp10_above_block_mode(mic, above_mi, i);
        const PREDICTION_MODE L = vp10_left_block_mode(mic, left_mi, i);

        bmode_costs  = cpi->y_mode_costs[A][L];
      }

      this_rd = rd_pick_intra4x4block(cpi, mb, idy, idx, &best_mode,
                                      bmode_costs, t_above + idx, t_left + idy,
                                      &r, &ry, &d, bsize, best_rd - total_rd);
      if (this_rd >= best_rd - total_rd)
        return INT64_MAX;

      total_rd += this_rd;
      cost += r;
      total_distortion += d;
      tot_rate_y += ry;

      mic->bmi[i].as_mode = best_mode;
      for (j = 1; j < num_4x4_blocks_high; ++j)
        mic->bmi[i + j * 2].as_mode = best_mode;
      for (j = 1; j < num_4x4_blocks_wide; ++j)
        mic->bmi[i + j].as_mode = best_mode;

      if (total_rd >= best_rd)
        return INT64_MAX;
    }
  }

  *rate = cost;
  *rate_y = tot_rate_y;
  *distortion = total_distortion;
  mic->mbmi.mode = mic->bmi[3].as_mode;

  return RDCOST(mb->rdmult, mb->rddiv, cost, total_distortion);
}

// This function is used only for intra_only frames
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static int64_t rd_pick_intra_sby_mode(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                      int *rate, int *rate_tokenonly,
                                      int64_t *distortion, int *skippable,
                                      BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                                      int64_t best_rd) {
  PREDICTION_MODE mode;
  PREDICTION_MODE mode_selected = DC_PRED;
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MODE_INFO *const mic = xd->mi[0];
  int this_rate, this_rate_tokenonly, s;
  int64_t this_distortion, this_rd;
  TX_SIZE best_tx = TX_4X4;
  int *bmode_costs;
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  PALETTE_MODE_INFO palette_mode_info;
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  uint8_t *best_palette_color_map = cpi->common.allow_screen_content_tools ?
      x->palette_buffer->best_palette_color_map : NULL;
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  int rows = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  int cols = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  int palette_ctx = 0;
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  const MODE_INFO *above_mi = xd->above_mi;
  const MODE_INFO *left_mi = xd->left_mi;
  const PREDICTION_MODE A = vp10_above_block_mode(mic, above_mi, 0);
  const PREDICTION_MODE L = vp10_left_block_mode(mic, left_mi, 0);
  bmode_costs = cpi->y_mode_costs[A][L];

  memset(x->skip_txfm, SKIP_TXFM_NONE, sizeof(x->skip_txfm));
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  palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] = 0;
  mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] = 0;
  if (above_mi)
    palette_ctx += (above_mi->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] > 0);
  if (left_mi)
    palette_ctx += (left_mi->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] > 0);

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  /* Y Search for intra prediction mode */
  for (mode = DC_PRED; mode <= TM_PRED; mode++) {
    mic->mbmi.mode = mode;

    super_block_yrd(cpi, x, &this_rate_tokenonly, &this_distortion,
        &s, NULL, bsize, best_rd);

    if (this_rate_tokenonly == INT_MAX)
      continue;

    this_rate = this_rate_tokenonly + bmode_costs[mode];
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    if (cpi->common.allow_screen_content_tools && mode == DC_PRED)
      this_rate +=
          vp10_cost_bit(vp10_default_palette_y_mode_prob[bsize - BLOCK_8X8]
                                                         [palette_ctx], 0);
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    this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, this_rate, this_distortion);

    if (this_rd < best_rd) {
      mode_selected   = mode;
      best_rd         = this_rd;
      best_tx         = mic->mbmi.tx_size;
      *rate           = this_rate;
      *rate_tokenonly = this_rate_tokenonly;
      *distortion     = this_distortion;
      *skippable      = s;
    }
  }

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  if (cpi->common.allow_screen_content_tools)
    rd_pick_palette_intra_sby(cpi, x, bsize, palette_ctx, bmode_costs[DC_PRED],
                              &palette_mode_info, best_palette_color_map,
                              &best_tx, &mode_selected, &best_rd);

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  mic->mbmi.mode = mode_selected;
  mic->mbmi.tx_size = best_tx;
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  mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] =
      palette_mode_info.palette_size[0];
  if (palette_mode_info.palette_size[0] > 0) {
    memcpy(mic->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_colors,
           palette_mode_info.palette_colors,
           PALETTE_MAX_SIZE * sizeof(palette_mode_info.palette_colors[0]));
    memcpy(xd->plane[0].color_index_map, best_palette_color_map,
           rows * cols * sizeof(best_palette_color_map[0]));
  }
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  return best_rd;
}

// Return value 0: early termination triggered, no valid rd cost available;
//              1: rd cost values are valid.
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static int super_block_uvrd(const VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                            int *rate, int64_t *distortion, int *skippable,
                            int64_t *sse, BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                            int64_t ref_best_rd) {
  MACROBLOCKD *const xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  const TX_SIZE uv_tx_size = get_uv_tx_size(mbmi, &xd->plane[1]);
  int plane;
  int pnrate = 0, pnskip = 1;
  int64_t pndist = 0, pnsse = 0;
  int is_cost_valid = 1;

  if (ref_best_rd < 0)
    is_cost_valid = 0;

  if (is_inter_block(mbmi) && is_cost_valid) {
    int plane;
    for (plane = 1; plane < MAX_MB_PLANE; ++plane)
      vp10_subtract_plane(x, bsize, plane);
  }

  *rate = 0;
  *distortion = 0;
  *sse = 0;
  *skippable = 1;

  for (plane = 1; plane < MAX_MB_PLANE; ++plane) {
    txfm_rd_in_plane(x, &pnrate, &pndist, &pnskip, &pnsse,
                     ref_best_rd, plane, bsize, uv_tx_size,
                     cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
    if (pnrate == INT_MAX) {
      is_cost_valid = 0;
      break;
    }
    *rate += pnrate;
    *distortion += pndist;
    *sse += pnsse;
    *skippable &= pnskip;
  }

  if (!is_cost_valid) {
    // reset cost value
    *rate = INT_MAX;
    *distortion = INT64_MAX;
    *sse = INT64_MAX;
    *skippable = 0;
  }

  return is_cost_valid;
}

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static int64_t rd_pick_intra_sbuv_mode(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                       PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx,
                                       int *rate, int *rate_tokenonly,
                                       int64_t *distortion, int *skippable,
                                       BLOCK_SIZE bsize, TX_SIZE max_tx_size) {
  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
  PREDICTION_MODE mode;
  PREDICTION_MODE mode_selected = DC_PRED;
  int64_t best_rd = INT64_MAX, this_rd;
  int this_rate_tokenonly, this_rate, s;
  int64_t this_distortion, this_sse;

  memset(x->skip_txfm, SKIP_TXFM_NONE, sizeof(x->skip_txfm));
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  xd->mi[0]->mbmi.palette_mode_info.palette_size[1] = 0;
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  for (mode = DC_PRED; mode <= TM_PRED; ++mode) {
    if (!(cpi->sf.intra_uv_mode_mask[max_tx_size] & (1 << mode)))
      continue;

    xd->mi[0]->mbmi.uv_mode = mode;

    if (!super_block_uvrd(cpi, x, &this_rate_tokenonly,
                          &this_distortion, &s, &this_sse, bsize, best_rd))
      continue;
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    this_rate = this_rate_tokenonly + cpi->intra_uv_mode_cost[mode];
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    this_rd = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, this_rate, this_distortion);

    if (this_rd < best_rd) {
      mode_selected   = mode;
      best_rd         = this_rd;
      *rate           = this_rate;
      *rate_tokenonly = this_rate_tokenonly;
      *distortion     = this_distortion;
      *skippable      = s;
      if (!x->select_tx_size)
        swap_block_ptr(x, ctx, 2, 0, 1, MAX_MB_PLANE);
    }
  }

  xd->mi[0]->mbmi.uv_mode = mode_selected;
  return best_rd;
}

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static int64_t rd_sbuv_dcpred(const VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                              int *rate, int *rate_tokenonly,
                              int64_t *distortion, int *skippable,
                              BLOCK_SIZE bsize) {
  int64_t unused;

  x->e_mbd.mi[0]->mbmi.uv_mode = DC_PRED;
  memset(x->skip_txfm, SKIP_TXFM_NONE, sizeof(x->skip_txfm));
  super_block_uvrd(cpi, x, rate_tokenonly, distortion,
                   skippable, &unused, bsize, INT64_MAX);
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  *rate = *rate_tokenonly + cpi->intra_uv_mode_cost[DC_PRED];
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  return RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, *rate, *distortion);
}

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static void choose_intra_uv_mode(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *const x,
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                                 PICK_MODE_CONTEXT *ctx,
                                 BLOCK_SIZE bsize, TX_SIZE max_tx_size,
                                 int *rate_uv, int *rate_uv_tokenonly,
                                 int64_t *dist_uv, int *skip_uv,
                                 PREDICTION_MODE *mode_uv) {
  // Use an estimated rd for uv_intra based on DC_PRED if the
  // appropriate speed flag is set.
  if (cpi->sf.use_uv_intra_rd_estimate) {
    rd_sbuv_dcpred(cpi, x, rate_uv, rate_uv_tokenonly, dist_uv,
                   skip_uv, bsize < BLOCK_8X8 ? BLOCK_8X8 : bsize);
  // Else do a proper rd search for each possible transform size that may
  // be considered in the main rd loop.
  } else {
    rd_pick_intra_sbuv_mode(cpi, x, ctx,
                            rate_uv, rate_uv_tokenonly, dist_uv, skip_uv,
                            bsize < BLOCK_8X8 ? BLOCK_8X8 : bsize, max_tx_size);
  }
  *mode_uv = x->e_mbd.mi[0]->mbmi.uv_mode;
}

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static int cost_mv_ref(const VP10_COMP *cpi, PREDICTION_MODE mode,
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                       int mode_context) {
  assert(is_inter_mode(mode));
  return cpi->inter_mode_cost[mode_context][INTER_OFFSET(mode)];
}

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static int set_and_cost_bmi_mvs(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x, MACROBLOCKD *xd,
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                                int i,
                                PREDICTION_MODE mode, int_mv this_mv[2],
                                int_mv frame_mv[MB_MODE_COUNT][MAX_REF_FRAMES],
                                int_mv seg_mvs[MAX_REF_FRAMES],
                                int_mv *best_ref_mv[2], const int *mvjcost,
                                int *mvcost[2]) {
  MODE_INFO *const mic = xd->mi[0];
  const MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &mic->mbmi;
  const MB_MODE_INFO_EXT *const mbmi_ext = x->mbmi_ext;
  int thismvcost = 0;
  int idx, idy;
  const int num_4x4_blocks_wide = num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[mbmi->sb_type];
  const int num_4x4_blocks_high = num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[mbmi->sb_type];
  const int is_compound = has_second_ref(mbmi);

  switch (mode) {
    case NEWMV:
      this_mv[0].as_int = seg_mvs[mbmi->ref_frame[0]].as_int;
      thismvcost += vp10_mv_bit_cost(&this_mv[0].as_mv, &best_ref_mv[0]->as_mv,
                                    mvjcost, mvcost, MV_COST_WEIGHT_SUB);
      if (is_compound) {
        this_mv[1].as_int = seg_mvs[mbmi->ref_frame[1]].as_int;
        thismvcost += vp10_mv_bit_cost(&this_mv[1].as_mv, &best_ref_mv[1]->as_mv,
                                      mvjcost, mvcost, MV_COST_WEIGHT_SUB);
      }
      break;
    case NEARMV:
    case NEARESTMV:
      this_mv[0].as_int = frame_mv[mode][mbmi->ref_frame[0]].as_int;
      if (is_compound)
        this_mv[1].as_int = frame_mv[mode][mbmi->ref_frame[1]].as_int;
      break;
    case ZEROMV:
      this_mv[0].as_int = 0;
      if (is_compound)
        this_mv[1].as_int = 0;
      break;
    default:
      break;
  }

  mic->bmi[i].as_mv[0].as_int = this_mv[0].as_int;
  if (is_compound)
    mic->bmi[i].as_mv[1].as_int = this_mv[1].as_int;

  mic->bmi[i].as_mode = mode;

  for (idy = 0; idy < num_4x4_blocks_high; ++idy)
    for (idx = 0; idx < num_4x4_blocks_wide; ++idx)
      memmove(&mic->bmi[i + idy * 2 + idx], &mic->bmi[i], sizeof(mic->bmi[i]));

  return cost_mv_ref(cpi, mode, mbmi_ext->mode_context[mbmi->ref_frame[0]]) +
            thismvcost;
}

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static int64_t encode_inter_mb_segment(VP10_COMP *cpi,
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                                       MACROBLOCK *x,
                                       int64_t best_yrd,
                                       int i,
                                       int *labelyrate,
                                       int64_t *distortion, int64_t *sse,
                                       ENTROPY_CONTEXT *ta,
                                       ENTROPY_CONTEXT *tl,
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                                       int ir, int ic,
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                                       int mi_row, int mi_col) {
  int k;
  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
  struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &xd->plane[0];
  struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[0];
  MODE_INFO *const mi = xd->mi[0];
  const BLOCK_SIZE plane_bsize = get_plane_block_size(mi->mbmi.sb_type, pd);
  const int width = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[plane_bsize];
  const int height = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[plane_bsize];
  int idx, idy;
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  void (*fwd_txm4x4)(const int16_t *input, tran_low_t *output, int stride);

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  const uint8_t *const src =
      &p->src.buf[vp10_raster_block_offset(BLOCK_8X8, i, p->src.stride)];
  uint8_t *const dst = &pd->dst.buf[vp10_raster_block_offset(BLOCK_8X8, i,
                                                            pd->dst.stride)];
  int64_t thisdistortion = 0, thissse = 0;
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  int thisrate = 0;
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  TX_TYPE tx_type = get_tx_type(PLANE_TYPE_Y, xd, i);
  const scan_order *so = get_scan(TX_4X4, tx_type);
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  vp10_build_inter_predictor_sub8x8(xd, 0, i, ir, ic, mi_row, mi_col);
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#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  if (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) {
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    fwd_txm4x4 = xd->lossless[mi->mbmi.segment_id] ? vp10_highbd_fwht4x4
                                                   : vpx_highbd_fdct4x4;
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  } else {
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    fwd_txm4x4 = xd->lossless[mi->mbmi.segment_id] ? vp10_fwht4x4 : vpx_fdct4x4;
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  }
#else
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  fwd_txm4x4 = xd->lossless[mi->mbmi.segment_id] ? vp10_fwht4x4 : vpx_fdct4x4;
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#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

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#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
  if (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) {
    vpx_highbd_subtract_block(
        height, width, vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8, i, p->src_diff),
        8, src, p->src.stride, dst, pd->dst.stride, xd->bd);
  } else {
    vpx_subtract_block(
        height, width, vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8, i, p->src_diff),
        8, src, p->src.stride, dst, pd->dst.stride);
  }
#else
  vpx_subtract_block(height, width,
                     vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8, i, p->src_diff),
                     8, src, p->src.stride, dst, pd->dst.stride);
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH

  k = i;
  for (idy = 0; idy < height / 4; ++idy) {
    for (idx = 0; idx < width / 4; ++idx) {
      int64_t ssz, rd, rd1, rd2;
      tran_low_t* coeff;

      k += (idy * 2 + idx);
      coeff = BLOCK_OFFSET(p->coeff, k);
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      fwd_txm4x4(vp10_raster_block_offset_int16(BLOCK_8X8, k, p->src_diff),
                 coeff, 8);
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      vp10_regular_quantize_b_4x4(x, 0, k, so->scan, so->iscan);
#if CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      if (xd->cur_buf->flags & YV12_FLAG_HIGHBITDEPTH) {
        thisdistortion += vp10_highbd_block_error(coeff,
                                                 BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, k),
                                                 16, &ssz, xd->bd);
      } else {
        thisdistortion += vp10_block_error(coeff, BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, k),
                                          16, &ssz);
      }
#else
      thisdistortion += vp10_block_error(coeff, BLOCK_OFFSET(pd->dqcoeff, k),
                                        16, &ssz);
#endif  // CONFIG_VP9_HIGHBITDEPTH
      thissse += ssz;
      thisrate += cost_coeffs(x, 0, k, ta + (k & 1), tl + (k >> 1), TX_4X4,
                              so->scan, so->neighbors,
                              cpi->sf.use_fast_coef_costing);
      rd1 = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, thisrate, thisdistortion >> 2);
      rd2 = RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, 0, thissse >> 2);
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      rd = VPXMIN(rd1, rd2);
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      if (rd >= best_yrd)
        return INT64_MAX;
    }
  }

  *distortion = thisdistortion >> 2;
  *labelyrate = thisrate;
  *sse = thissse >> 2;

  return RDCOST(x->rdmult, x->rddiv, *labelyrate, *distortion);
}

typedef struct {
  int eobs;
  int brate;
  int byrate;
  int64_t bdist;
  int64_t bsse;
  int64_t brdcost;
  int_mv mvs[2];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT ta[2];
  ENTROPY_CONTEXT tl[2];
} SEG_RDSTAT;

typedef struct {
  int_mv *ref_mv[2];
  int_mv mvp;

  int64_t segment_rd;
  int r;
  int64_t d;
  int64_t sse;
  int segment_yrate;
  PREDICTION_MODE modes[4];
  SEG_RDSTAT rdstat[4][INTER_MODES];
  int mvthresh;
} BEST_SEG_INFO;

static INLINE int mv_check_bounds(const MACROBLOCK *x, const MV *mv) {
  return (mv->row >> 3) < x->mv_row_min ||
         (mv->row >> 3) > x->mv_row_max ||
         (mv->col >> 3) < x->mv_col_min ||
         (mv->col >> 3) > x->mv_col_max;
}

static INLINE void mi_buf_shift(MACROBLOCK *x, int i) {
  MB_MODE_INFO *const mbmi = &x->e_mbd.mi[0]->mbmi;
  struct macroblock_plane *const p = &x->plane[0];
  struct macroblockd_plane *const pd = &x->e_mbd.plane[0];

  p->src.buf = &p->src.buf[vp10_raster_block_offset(BLOCK_8X8, i,
                                                   p->src.stride)];
  assert(((intptr_t)pd->pre[0].buf & 0x7) == 0);
  pd->pre[0].buf = &pd->pre[0].buf[vp10_raster_block_offset(BLOCK_8X8, i,
                                                           pd->pre[0].stride)];
  if (has_second_ref(mbmi))
    pd->pre[1].buf = &pd->pre[1].buf[vp10_raster_block_offset(BLOCK_8X8, i,
                                                           pd->pre[1].stride)];
}

static INLINE void mi_buf_restore(MACROBLOCK *x, struct buf_2d orig_src,
                                  struct buf_2d orig_pre[2]) {
  MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi = &x->e_mbd.mi[0]->mbmi;
  x->plane[0].src = orig_src;
  x->e_mbd.plane[0].pre[0] = orig_pre[0];
  if (has_second_ref(mbmi))
    x->e_mbd.plane[0].pre[1] = orig_pre[1];
}

static INLINE int mv_has_subpel(const MV *mv) {
  return (mv->row & 0x0F) || (mv->col & 0x0F);
}

// Check if NEARESTMV/NEARMV/ZEROMV is the cheapest way encode zero motion.
// TODO(aconverse): Find out if this is still productive then clean up or remove
static int check_best_zero_mv(
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    const VP10_COMP *cpi, const uint8_t mode_context[MAX_REF_FRAMES],
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    int_mv frame_mv[MB_MODE_COUNT][MAX_REF_FRAMES], int this_mode,
    const MV_REFERENCE_FRAME ref_frames[2]) {
  if ((this_mode == NEARMV || this_mode == NEARESTMV || this_mode == ZEROMV) &&
      frame_mv[this_mode][ref_frames[0]].as_int == 0 &&
      (ref_frames[1] == NONE ||
       frame_mv[this_mode][ref_frames[1]].as_int == 0)) {
    int rfc = mode_context[ref_frames[0]];
    int c1 = cost_mv_ref(cpi, NEARMV, rfc);
    int c2 = cost_mv_ref(cpi, NEARESTMV, rfc);
    int c3 = cost_mv_ref(cpi, ZEROMV, rfc);

    if (this_mode == NEARMV) {
      if (c1 > c3) return 0;
    } else if (this_mode == NEARESTMV) {
      if (c2 > c3) return 0;
    } else {
      assert(this_mode == ZEROMV);
      if (ref_frames[1] == NONE) {
        if ((c3 >= c2 && frame_mv[NEARESTMV][ref_frames[0]].as_int == 0) ||
            (c3 >= c1 && frame_mv[NEARMV][ref_frames[0]].as_int == 0))
          return 0;
      } else {
        if ((c3 >= c2 && frame_mv[NEARESTMV][ref_frames[0]].as_int == 0 &&
             frame_mv[NEARESTMV][ref_frames[1]].as_int == 0) ||
            (c3 >= c1 && frame_mv[NEARMV][ref_frames[0]].as_int == 0 &&
             frame_mv[NEARMV][ref_frames[1]].as_int == 0))
          return 0;
      }
    }
  }
  return 1;
}

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static void joint_motion_search(VP10_COMP *cpi, MACROBLOCK *x,
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                                BLOCK_SIZE bsize,
                                int_mv *frame_mv,
                                int mi_row, int mi_col,
                                int_mv single_newmv[MAX_REF_FRAMES],
                                int *rate_mv) {
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  const VP10_COMMON *const cm = &cpi->common;
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  const int pw = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_wide_lookup[bsize];
  const int ph = 4 * num_4x4_blocks_high_lookup[bsize];
  MACROBLOCKD *xd = &x->e_mbd;
  MB_MODE_INFO *mbmi = &xd->mi[0]->mbmi;
  const int refs[2] = {mbmi->ref_frame[0],
                       mbmi->ref_frame[1] < 0 ? 0 : mbmi->ref_frame[1]};
  int_mv ref_mv[2];
  int ite, ref;
  const InterpKernel *kernel = vp10_filter_kernels[mbmi->interp_filter];
  struct scale_factors sf;

  // Do joint motion search in compound mode to get more accurate mv.
  struct buf_2d backup_yv12[2][MAX_MB_PLANE];
  int last_besterr[2] = {INT_MAX, INT_MAX};