vpxenc.c 73.8 KB
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/*
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 *  Copyright (c) 2010 The WebM project authors. All Rights Reserved.
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 *
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 *  Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license
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 *  that can be found in the LICENSE file in the root of the source
 *  tree. An additional intellectual property rights grant can be found
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 *  in the file PATENTS.  All contributing project authors may
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 *  be found in the AUTHORS file in the root of the source tree.
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 */

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#include "./vpx_config.h"
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#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(__OS2__) || !CONFIG_OS_SUPPORT
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#define USE_POSIX_MMAP 0
#else
#define USE_POSIX_MMAP 1
#endif
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#include <math.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <string.h>
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#include <limits.h>
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#include <assert.h>
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#include "vpx/vpx_encoder.h"
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#if CONFIG_DECODERS
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#include "vpx/vpx_decoder.h"
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#endif
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#if USE_POSIX_MMAP
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
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#include "third_party/libyuv/include/libyuv/scale.h"

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#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER || CONFIG_VP9_ENCODER
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#include "vpx/vp8cx.h"
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#endif
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#if CONFIG_VP8_DECODER || CONFIG_VP9_DECODER
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#include "vpx/vp8dx.h"
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#endif

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#include "./tools_common.h"
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#include "vpx_ports/mem_ops.h"
#include "vpx_ports/vpx_timer.h"
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#include "./vpxstats.h"
#include "./webmenc.h"
#include "./y4minput.h"
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/* Swallow warnings about unused results of fread/fwrite */
static size_t wrap_fread(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb,
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                         FILE *stream) {
  return fread(ptr, size, nmemb, stream);
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}
#define fread wrap_fread

static size_t wrap_fwrite(const void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb,
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                          FILE *stream) {
  return fwrite(ptr, size, nmemb, stream);
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}
#define fwrite wrap_fwrite


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static const char *exec_name;

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static const struct codec_item {
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  char const              *name;
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  const vpx_codec_iface_t *(*iface)(void);
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  const vpx_codec_iface_t *(*dx_iface)(void);
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  unsigned int             fourcc;
} codecs[] = {
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#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER && CONFIG_VP8_DECODER
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  {"vp8", &vpx_codec_vp8_cx, &vpx_codec_vp8_dx, VP8_FOURCC},
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#elif CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER && !CONFIG_VP8_DECODER
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  {"vp8", &vpx_codec_vp8_cx, NULL, VP8_FOURCC},
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#endif
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#if CONFIG_VP9_ENCODER && CONFIG_VP9_DECODER
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  {"vp9", &vpx_codec_vp9_cx, &vpx_codec_vp9_dx, VP9_FOURCC},
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#elif CONFIG_VP9_ENCODER && !CONFIG_VP9_DECODER
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  {"vp9", &vpx_codec_vp9_cx, NULL, VP9_FOURCC},
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#endif
};

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static void warn_or_exit_on_errorv(vpx_codec_ctx_t *ctx, int fatal,
                                   const char *s, va_list ap) {
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  if (ctx->err) {
    const char *detail = vpx_codec_error_detail(ctx);
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    vfprintf(stderr, s, ap);
    fprintf(stderr, ": %s\n", vpx_codec_error(ctx));
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    if (detail)
      fprintf(stderr, "    %s\n", detail);
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    if (fatal)
      exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
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  }
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}

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static void ctx_exit_on_error(vpx_codec_ctx_t *ctx, const char *s, ...) {
  va_list ap;

  va_start(ap, s);
  warn_or_exit_on_errorv(ctx, 1, s, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}

static void warn_or_exit_on_error(vpx_codec_ctx_t *ctx, int fatal,
                                  const char *s, ...) {
  va_list ap;

  va_start(ap, s);
  warn_or_exit_on_errorv(ctx, fatal, s, ap);
  va_end(ap);
}

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enum video_file_type {
  FILE_TYPE_RAW,
  FILE_TYPE_IVF,
  FILE_TYPE_Y4M
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};

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struct detect_buffer {
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  char buf[4];
  size_t buf_read;
  size_t position;
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};


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struct input_state {
  char                 *fn;
  FILE                 *file;
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  off_t                 length;
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  y4m_input             y4m;
  struct detect_buffer  detect;
  enum video_file_type  file_type;
  unsigned int          w;
  unsigned int          h;
  struct vpx_rational   framerate;
  int                   use_i420;
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  int                   only_i420;
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};

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#define IVF_FRAME_HDR_SZ (4+8) /* 4 byte size + 8 byte timestamp */
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static int read_frame(struct input_state *input, vpx_image_t *img) {
  FILE *f = input->file;
  enum video_file_type file_type = input->file_type;
  y4m_input *y4m = &input->y4m;
  struct detect_buffer *detect = &input->detect;
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  int plane = 0;
  int shortread = 0;

  if (file_type == FILE_TYPE_Y4M) {
    if (y4m_input_fetch_frame(y4m, f, img) < 1)
      return 0;
  } else {
    if (file_type == FILE_TYPE_IVF) {
      char junk[IVF_FRAME_HDR_SZ];

      /* Skip the frame header. We know how big the frame should be. See
       * write_ivf_frame_header() for documentation on the frame header
       * layout.
       */
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      (void) fread(junk, 1, IVF_FRAME_HDR_SZ, f);
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    }
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    for (plane = 0; plane < 3; plane++) {
      unsigned char *ptr;
      int w = (plane ? (1 + img->d_w) / 2 : img->d_w);
      int h = (plane ? (1 + img->d_h) / 2 : img->d_h);
      int r;

      /* Determine the correct plane based on the image format. The for-loop
       * always counts in Y,U,V order, but this may not match the order of
       * the data on disk.
       */
      switch (plane) {
        case 1:
          ptr = img->planes[img->fmt == VPX_IMG_FMT_YV12 ? VPX_PLANE_V : VPX_PLANE_U];
          break;
        case 2:
          ptr = img->planes[img->fmt == VPX_IMG_FMT_YV12 ? VPX_PLANE_U : VPX_PLANE_V];
          break;
        default:
          ptr = img->planes[plane];
      }

      for (r = 0; r < h; r++) {
        size_t needed = w;
        size_t buf_position = 0;
        const size_t left = detect->buf_read - detect->position;
        if (left > 0) {
          const size_t more = (left < needed) ? left : needed;
          memcpy(ptr, detect->buf + detect->position, more);
          buf_position = more;
          needed -= more;
          detect->position += more;
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        }
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        if (needed > 0) {
          shortread |= (fread(ptr + buf_position, 1, needed, f) < needed);
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        }
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        ptr += img->stride[plane];
      }
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    }
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  }
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  return !shortread;
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}


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unsigned int file_is_y4m(FILE      *infile,
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                         y4m_input *y4m,
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                         char       detect[4]) {
  if (memcmp(detect, "YUV4", 4) == 0) {
    return 1;
  }
  return 0;
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}

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#define IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ (32)
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unsigned int file_is_ivf(struct input_state *input,
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                         unsigned int *fourcc) {
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  char raw_hdr[IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ];
  int is_ivf = 0;
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  FILE *infile = input->file;
  unsigned int *width = &input->w;
  unsigned int *height = &input->h;
  struct detect_buffer *detect = &input->detect;
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  if (memcmp(detect->buf, "DKIF", 4) != 0)
    return 0;
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  /* See write_ivf_file_header() for more documentation on the file header
   * layout.
   */
  if (fread(raw_hdr + 4, 1, IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ - 4, infile)
      == IVF_FILE_HDR_SZ - 4) {
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    {
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      is_ivf = 1;
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      if (mem_get_le16(raw_hdr + 4) != 0)
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        warn("Unrecognized IVF version! This file may not decode "
             "properly.");
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      *fourcc = mem_get_le32(raw_hdr + 8);
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    }
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  }
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  if (is_ivf) {
    *width = mem_get_le16(raw_hdr + 12);
    *height = mem_get_le16(raw_hdr + 14);
    detect->position = 4;
  }
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  return is_ivf;
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}


static void write_ivf_file_header(FILE *outfile,
                                  const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
                                  unsigned int fourcc,
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                                  int frame_cnt) {
  char header[32];

  if (cfg->g_pass != VPX_RC_ONE_PASS && cfg->g_pass != VPX_RC_LAST_PASS)
    return;

  header[0] = 'D';
  header[1] = 'K';
  header[2] = 'I';
  header[3] = 'F';
  mem_put_le16(header + 4,  0);                 /* version */
  mem_put_le16(header + 6,  32);                /* headersize */
  mem_put_le32(header + 8,  fourcc);            /* headersize */
  mem_put_le16(header + 12, cfg->g_w);          /* width */
  mem_put_le16(header + 14, cfg->g_h);          /* height */
  mem_put_le32(header + 16, cfg->g_timebase.den); /* rate */
  mem_put_le32(header + 20, cfg->g_timebase.num); /* scale */
  mem_put_le32(header + 24, frame_cnt);         /* length */
  mem_put_le32(header + 28, 0);                 /* unused */

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  (void) fwrite(header, 1, 32, outfile);
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}


static void write_ivf_frame_header(FILE *outfile,
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                                   const vpx_codec_cx_pkt_t *pkt) {
  char             header[12];
  vpx_codec_pts_t  pts;
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  if (pkt->kind != VPX_CODEC_CX_FRAME_PKT)
    return;
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  pts = pkt->data.frame.pts;
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  mem_put_le32(header, (int)pkt->data.frame.sz);
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  mem_put_le32(header + 4, pts & 0xFFFFFFFF);
  mem_put_le32(header + 8, pts >> 32);
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  (void) fwrite(header, 1, 12, outfile);
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}

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static void write_ivf_frame_size(FILE *outfile, size_t size) {
  char             header[4];
  mem_put_le32(header, (int)size);
  (void) fwrite(header, 1, 4, outfile);
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}

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/* Murmur hash derived from public domain reference implementation at
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 *   http:// sites.google.com/site/murmurhash/
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 */
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static unsigned int murmur(const void *key, int len, unsigned int seed) {
  const unsigned int m = 0x5bd1e995;
  const int r = 24;
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  unsigned int h = seed ^ len;
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  const unsigned char *data = (const unsigned char *)key;
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  while (len >= 4) {
    unsigned int k;
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    k  = (unsigned int)data[0];
    k |= (unsigned int)data[1] << 8;
    k |= (unsigned int)data[2] << 16;
    k |= (unsigned int)data[3] << 24;
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    k *= m;
    k ^= k >> r;
    k *= m;
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    h *= m;
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    h ^= k;

    data += 4;
    len -= 4;
  }

  switch (len) {
    case 3:
      h ^= data[2] << 16;
    case 2:
      h ^= data[1] << 8;
    case 1:
      h ^= data[0];
      h *= m;
  };

  h ^= h >> 13;
  h *= m;
  h ^= h >> 15;

  return h;
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}


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#include "args.h"
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static const arg_def_t debugmode = ARG_DEF("D", "debug", 0,
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                                           "Debug mode (makes output deterministic)");
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static const arg_def_t outputfile = ARG_DEF("o", "output", 1,
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                                            "Output filename");
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static const arg_def_t use_yv12 = ARG_DEF(NULL, "yv12", 0,
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                                          "Input file is YV12 ");
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static const arg_def_t use_i420 = ARG_DEF(NULL, "i420", 0,
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                                          "Input file is I420 (default)");
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static const arg_def_t codecarg = ARG_DEF(NULL, "codec", 1,
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                                          "Codec to use");
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static const arg_def_t passes           = ARG_DEF("p", "passes", 1,
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                                                  "Number of passes (1/2)");
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static const arg_def_t pass_arg         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "pass", 1,
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                                                  "Pass to execute (1/2)");
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static const arg_def_t fpf_name         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "fpf", 1,
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                                                  "First pass statistics file name");
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static const arg_def_t limit = ARG_DEF(NULL, "limit", 1,
                                       "Stop encoding after n input frames");
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static const arg_def_t skip = ARG_DEF(NULL, "skip", 1,
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                                      "Skip the first n input frames");
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static const arg_def_t deadline         = ARG_DEF("d", "deadline", 1,
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                                                  "Deadline per frame (usec)");
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static const arg_def_t best_dl          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "best", 0,
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                                                  "Use Best Quality Deadline");
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static const arg_def_t good_dl          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "good", 0,
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                                                  "Use Good Quality Deadline");
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static const arg_def_t rt_dl            = ARG_DEF(NULL, "rt", 0,
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                                                  "Use Realtime Quality Deadline");
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static const arg_def_t quietarg         = ARG_DEF("q", "quiet", 0,
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                                                  "Do not print encode progress");
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static const arg_def_t verbosearg       = ARG_DEF("v", "verbose", 0,
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                                                  "Show encoder parameters");
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static const arg_def_t psnrarg          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "psnr", 0,
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                                                  "Show PSNR in status line");
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enum TestDecodeFatality {
  TEST_DECODE_OFF,
  TEST_DECODE_FATAL,
  TEST_DECODE_WARN,
};
static const struct arg_enum_list test_decode_enum[] = {
  {"off",   TEST_DECODE_OFF},
  {"fatal", TEST_DECODE_FATAL},
  {"warn",  TEST_DECODE_WARN},
  {NULL, 0}
};
static const arg_def_t recontest = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "test-decode", 1,
                                                "Test encode/decode mismatch",
                                                test_decode_enum);
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static const arg_def_t framerate        = ARG_DEF(NULL, "fps", 1,
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                                                  "Stream frame rate (rate/scale)");
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static const arg_def_t use_ivf          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "ivf", 0,
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                                                  "Output IVF (default is WebM)");
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static const arg_def_t out_part = ARG_DEF("P", "output-partitions", 0,
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                                          "Makes encoder output partitions. Requires IVF output!");
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static const arg_def_t q_hist_n         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "q-hist", 1,
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                                                  "Show quantizer histogram (n-buckets)");
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static const arg_def_t rate_hist_n         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "rate-hist", 1,
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                                                     "Show rate histogram (n-buckets)");
static const arg_def_t *main_args[] = {
  &debugmode,
  &outputfile, &codecarg, &passes, &pass_arg, &fpf_name, &limit, &skip,
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  &deadline, &best_dl, &good_dl, &rt_dl,
  &quietarg, &verbosearg, &psnrarg, &use_ivf, &out_part, &q_hist_n, &rate_hist_n,
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  NULL
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};

static const arg_def_t usage            = ARG_DEF("u", "usage", 1,
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                                                  "Usage profile number to use");
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static const arg_def_t threads          = ARG_DEF("t", "threads", 1,
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                                                  "Max number of threads to use");
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static const arg_def_t profile          = ARG_DEF(NULL, "profile", 1,
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                                                  "Bitstream profile number to use");
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static const arg_def_t width            = ARG_DEF("w", "width", 1,
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                                                  "Frame width");
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static const arg_def_t height           = ARG_DEF("h", "height", 1,
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                                                  "Frame height");
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static const struct arg_enum_list stereo_mode_enum[] = {
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  {"mono", STEREO_FORMAT_MONO},
  {"left-right", STEREO_FORMAT_LEFT_RIGHT},
  {"bottom-top", STEREO_FORMAT_BOTTOM_TOP},
  {"top-bottom", STEREO_FORMAT_TOP_BOTTOM},
  {"right-left", STEREO_FORMAT_RIGHT_LEFT},
  {NULL, 0}
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};
static const arg_def_t stereo_mode      = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "stereo-mode", 1,
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                                                       "Stereo 3D video format", stereo_mode_enum);
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static const arg_def_t timebase         = ARG_DEF(NULL, "timebase", 1,
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                                                  "Output timestamp precision (fractional seconds)");
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static const arg_def_t error_resilient  = ARG_DEF(NULL, "error-resilient", 1,
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                                                  "Enable error resiliency features");
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static const arg_def_t lag_in_frames    = ARG_DEF(NULL, "lag-in-frames", 1,
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                                                  "Max number of frames to lag");
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static const arg_def_t *global_args[] = {
  &use_yv12, &use_i420, &usage, &threads, &profile,
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  &width, &height, &stereo_mode, &timebase, &framerate,
  &error_resilient,
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  &lag_in_frames, NULL
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};

static const arg_def_t dropframe_thresh   = ARG_DEF(NULL, "drop-frame", 1,
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                                                    "Temporal resampling threshold (buf %)");
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static const arg_def_t resize_allowed     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "resize-allowed", 1,
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                                                    "Spatial resampling enabled (bool)");
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static const arg_def_t resize_up_thresh   = ARG_DEF(NULL, "resize-up", 1,
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                                                    "Upscale threshold (buf %)");
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static const arg_def_t resize_down_thresh = ARG_DEF(NULL, "resize-down", 1,
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                                                    "Downscale threshold (buf %)");
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static const struct arg_enum_list end_usage_enum[] = {
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  {"vbr", VPX_VBR},
  {"cbr", VPX_CBR},
  {"cq",  VPX_CQ},
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  {"q",   VPX_Q},
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  {NULL, 0}
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};
static const arg_def_t end_usage          = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "end-usage", 1,
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                                                         "Rate control mode", end_usage_enum);
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static const arg_def_t target_bitrate     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "target-bitrate", 1,
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                                                    "Bitrate (kbps)");
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static const arg_def_t min_quantizer      = ARG_DEF(NULL, "min-q", 1,
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                                                    "Minimum (best) quantizer");
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static const arg_def_t max_quantizer      = ARG_DEF(NULL, "max-q", 1,
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                                                    "Maximum (worst) quantizer");
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static const arg_def_t undershoot_pct     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "undershoot-pct", 1,
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                                                    "Datarate undershoot (min) target (%)");
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static const arg_def_t overshoot_pct      = ARG_DEF(NULL, "overshoot-pct", 1,
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                                                    "Datarate overshoot (max) target (%)");
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static const arg_def_t buf_sz             = ARG_DEF(NULL, "buf-sz", 1,
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                                                    "Client buffer size (ms)");
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static const arg_def_t buf_initial_sz     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "buf-initial-sz", 1,
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                                                    "Client initial buffer size (ms)");
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static const arg_def_t buf_optimal_sz     = ARG_DEF(NULL, "buf-optimal-sz", 1,
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                                                    "Client optimal buffer size (ms)");
static const arg_def_t *rc_args[] = {
  &dropframe_thresh, &resize_allowed, &resize_up_thresh, &resize_down_thresh,
  &end_usage, &target_bitrate, &min_quantizer, &max_quantizer,
  &undershoot_pct, &overshoot_pct, &buf_sz, &buf_initial_sz, &buf_optimal_sz,
  NULL
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};


static const arg_def_t bias_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "bias-pct", 1,
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                                          "CBR/VBR bias (0=CBR, 100=VBR)");
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static const arg_def_t minsection_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "minsection-pct", 1,
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                                                "GOP min bitrate (% of target)");
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static const arg_def_t maxsection_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "maxsection-pct", 1,
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                                                "GOP max bitrate (% of target)");
static const arg_def_t *rc_twopass_args[] = {
  &bias_pct, &minsection_pct, &maxsection_pct, NULL
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};


static const arg_def_t kf_min_dist = ARG_DEF(NULL, "kf-min-dist", 1,
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                                             "Minimum keyframe interval (frames)");
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static const arg_def_t kf_max_dist = ARG_DEF(NULL, "kf-max-dist", 1,
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                                             "Maximum keyframe interval (frames)");
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static const arg_def_t kf_disabled = ARG_DEF(NULL, "disable-kf", 0,
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                                             "Disable keyframe placement");
static const arg_def_t *kf_args[] = {
  &kf_min_dist, &kf_max_dist, &kf_disabled, NULL
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};


static const arg_def_t noise_sens = ARG_DEF(NULL, "noise-sensitivity", 1,
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                                            "Noise sensitivity (frames to blur)");
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static const arg_def_t sharpness = ARG_DEF(NULL, "sharpness", 1,
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                                           "Filter sharpness (0-7)");
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static const arg_def_t static_thresh = ARG_DEF(NULL, "static-thresh", 1,
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                                               "Motion detection threshold");
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static const arg_def_t cpu_used = ARG_DEF(NULL, "cpu-used", 1,
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                                          "CPU Used (-16..16)");
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static const arg_def_t token_parts = ARG_DEF(NULL, "token-parts", 1,
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                                     "Number of token partitions to use, log2");
static const arg_def_t tile_cols = ARG_DEF(NULL, "tile-columns", 1,
                                         "Number of tile columns to use, log2");
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static const arg_def_t tile_rows = ARG_DEF(NULL, "tile-rows", 1,
                                           "Number of tile rows to use, log2");
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static const arg_def_t auto_altref = ARG_DEF(NULL, "auto-alt-ref", 1,
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                                             "Enable automatic alt reference frames");
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static const arg_def_t arnr_maxframes = ARG_DEF(NULL, "arnr-maxframes", 1,
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                                                "AltRef Max Frames");
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static const arg_def_t arnr_strength = ARG_DEF(NULL, "arnr-strength", 1,
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                                               "AltRef Strength");
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static const arg_def_t arnr_type = ARG_DEF(NULL, "arnr-type", 1,
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                                           "AltRef Type");
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static const struct arg_enum_list tuning_enum[] = {
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  {"psnr", VP8_TUNE_PSNR},
  {"ssim", VP8_TUNE_SSIM},
  {NULL, 0}
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};
static const arg_def_t tune_ssim = ARG_DEF_ENUM(NULL, "tune", 1,
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                                                "Material to favor", tuning_enum);
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static const arg_def_t cq_level = ARG_DEF(NULL, "cq-level", 1,
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                                          "Constant/Constrained Quality level");
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static const arg_def_t max_intra_rate_pct = ARG_DEF(NULL, "max-intra-rate", 1,
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                                                    "Max I-frame bitrate (pct)");
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static const arg_def_t lossless = ARG_DEF(NULL, "lossless", 1, "Lossless mode");
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#if CONFIG_VP9_ENCODER
static const arg_def_t frame_parallel_decoding  = ARG_DEF(
    NULL, "frame-parallel", 1, "Enable frame parallel decodability features");
#endif
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#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
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static const arg_def_t *vp8_args[] = {
  &cpu_used, &auto_altref, &noise_sens, &sharpness, &static_thresh,
  &token_parts, &arnr_maxframes, &arnr_strength, &arnr_type,
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  &tune_ssim, &cq_level, &max_intra_rate_pct,
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  NULL
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};
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static const int vp8_arg_ctrl_map[] = {
  VP8E_SET_CPUUSED, VP8E_SET_ENABLEAUTOALTREF,
  VP8E_SET_NOISE_SENSITIVITY, VP8E_SET_SHARPNESS, VP8E_SET_STATIC_THRESHOLD,
  VP8E_SET_TOKEN_PARTITIONS,
  VP8E_SET_ARNR_MAXFRAMES, VP8E_SET_ARNR_STRENGTH, VP8E_SET_ARNR_TYPE,
  VP8E_SET_TUNING, VP8E_SET_CQ_LEVEL, VP8E_SET_MAX_INTRA_BITRATE_PCT,
  0
};
#endif

#if CONFIG_VP9_ENCODER
static const arg_def_t *vp9_args[] = {
  &cpu_used, &auto_altref, &noise_sens, &sharpness, &static_thresh,
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  &tile_cols, &tile_rows, &arnr_maxframes, &arnr_strength, &arnr_type,
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  &tune_ssim, &cq_level, &max_intra_rate_pct, &lossless,
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  &frame_parallel_decoding,
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  NULL
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};
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static const int vp9_arg_ctrl_map[] = {
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  VP8E_SET_CPUUSED, VP8E_SET_ENABLEAUTOALTREF,
  VP8E_SET_NOISE_SENSITIVITY, VP8E_SET_SHARPNESS, VP8E_SET_STATIC_THRESHOLD,
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  VP9E_SET_TILE_COLUMNS, VP9E_SET_TILE_ROWS,
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  VP8E_SET_ARNR_MAXFRAMES, VP8E_SET_ARNR_STRENGTH, VP8E_SET_ARNR_TYPE,
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  VP8E_SET_TUNING, VP8E_SET_CQ_LEVEL, VP8E_SET_MAX_INTRA_BITRATE_PCT,
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  VP9E_SET_LOSSLESS, VP9E_SET_FRAME_PARALLEL_DECODING,
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  0
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};
#endif

static const arg_def_t *no_args[] = { NULL };

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void usage_exit() {
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  int i;

  fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <options> -o dst_filename src_filename \n",
          exec_name);

  fprintf(stderr, "\nOptions:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, main_args);
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nEncoder Global Options:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, global_args);
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nRate Control Options:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, rc_args);
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nTwopass Rate Control Options:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, rc_twopass_args);
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nKeyframe Placement Options:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, kf_args);
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#if CONFIG_VP8_ENCODER
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nVP8 Specific Options:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, vp8_args);
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#endif
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#if CONFIG_VP9_ENCODER
  fprintf(stderr, "\nVP9 Specific Options:\n");
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  arg_show_usage(stderr, vp9_args);
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#endif
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nStream timebase (--timebase):\n"
          "  The desired precision of timestamps in the output, expressed\n"
          "  in fractional seconds. Default is 1/1000.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "\n"
          "Included encoders:\n"
          "\n");

  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(codecs) / sizeof(codecs[0]); i++)
    fprintf(stderr, "    %-6s - %s\n",
            codecs[i].name,
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            vpx_codec_iface_name(codecs[i].iface()));
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  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
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}

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#define HIST_BAR_MAX 40
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struct hist_bucket {
  int low, high, count;
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};


static int merge_hist_buckets(struct hist_bucket *bucket,
                              int *buckets_,
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                              int max_buckets) {
  int small_bucket = 0, merge_bucket = INT_MAX, big_bucket = 0;
  int buckets = *buckets_;
  int i;

  /* Find the extrema for this list of buckets */
  big_bucket = small_bucket = 0;
  for (i = 0; i < buckets; i++) {
    if (bucket[i].count < bucket[small_bucket].count)
      small_bucket = i;
    if (bucket[i].count > bucket[big_bucket].count)
      big_bucket = i;
  }

  /* If we have too many buckets, merge the smallest with an adjacent
   * bucket.
   */
  while (buckets > max_buckets) {
    int last_bucket = buckets - 1;

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    /* merge the small bucket with an adjacent one. */
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    if (small_bucket == 0)
      merge_bucket = 1;
    else if (small_bucket == last_bucket)
      merge_bucket = last_bucket - 1;
    else if (bucket[small_bucket - 1].count < bucket[small_bucket + 1].count)
      merge_bucket = small_bucket - 1;
    else
      merge_bucket = small_bucket + 1;

    assert(abs(merge_bucket - small_bucket) <= 1);
    assert(small_bucket < buckets);
    assert(big_bucket < buckets);
    assert(merge_bucket < buckets);

    if (merge_bucket < small_bucket) {
      bucket[merge_bucket].high = bucket[small_bucket].high;
      bucket[merge_bucket].count += bucket[small_bucket].count;
    } else {
      bucket[small_bucket].high = bucket[merge_bucket].high;
      bucket[small_bucket].count += bucket[merge_bucket].count;
      merge_bucket = small_bucket;
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    }

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    assert(bucket[merge_bucket].low != bucket[merge_bucket].high);
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    buckets--;
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    /* Remove the merge_bucket from the list, and find the new small
     * and big buckets while we're at it
     */
    big_bucket = small_bucket = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < buckets; i++) {
      if (i > merge_bucket)
        bucket[i] = bucket[i + 1];

      if (bucket[i].count < bucket[small_bucket].count)
        small_bucket = i;
      if (bucket[i].count > bucket[big_bucket].count)
        big_bucket = i;
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    }

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  }

  *buckets_ = buckets;
  return bucket[big_bucket].count;
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}


static void show_histogram(const struct hist_bucket *bucket,
                           int                       buckets,
                           int                       total,
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                           int                       scale) {
  const char *pat1, *pat2;
  int i;

  switch ((int)(log(bucket[buckets - 1].high) / log(10)) + 1) {
    case 1:
    case 2:
      pat1 = "%4d %2s: ";
      pat2 = "%4d-%2d: ";
      break;
    case 3:
      pat1 = "%5d %3s: ";
      pat2 = "%5d-%3d: ";
      break;
    case 4:
      pat1 = "%6d %4s: ";
      pat2 = "%6d-%4d: ";
      break;
    case 5:
      pat1 = "%7d %5s: ";
      pat2 = "%7d-%5d: ";
      break;
    case 6:
      pat1 = "%8d %6s: ";
      pat2 = "%8d-%6d: ";
      break;
    case 7:
      pat1 = "%9d %7s: ";
      pat2 = "%9d-%7d: ";
      break;
    default:
      pat1 = "%12d %10s: ";
      pat2 = "%12d-%10d: ";
      break;
  }

  for (i = 0; i < buckets; i++) {
    int len;
    int j;
    float pct;

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    pct = (float)(100.0 * bucket[i].count / total);
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    len = HIST_BAR_MAX * bucket[i].count / scale;
    if (len < 1)
      len = 1;
    assert(len <= HIST_BAR_MAX);

    if (bucket[i].low == bucket[i].high)
      fprintf(stderr, pat1, bucket[i].low, "");
    else
      fprintf(stderr, pat2, bucket[i].low, bucket[i].high);
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    for (j = 0; j < HIST_BAR_MAX; j++)
      fprintf(stderr, j < len ? "=" : " ");
    fprintf(stderr, "\t%5d (%6.2f%%)\n", bucket[i].count, pct);
  }
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}


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static void show_q_histogram(const int counts[64], int max_buckets) {
  struct hist_bucket bucket[64];
  int buckets = 0;
  int total = 0;
  int scale;
  int i;
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  for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) {
    if (counts[i]) {
      bucket[buckets].low = bucket[buckets].high = i;
      bucket[buckets].count = counts[i];
      buckets++;
      total += counts[i];
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    }
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  }
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  fprintf(stderr, "\nQuantizer Selection:\n");
  scale = merge_hist_buckets(bucket, &buckets, max_buckets);
  show_histogram(bucket, buckets, total, scale);
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}


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#define RATE_BINS (100)
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struct rate_hist {
  int64_t            *pts;
  int                *sz;
  int                 samples;
  int                 frames;
  struct hist_bucket  bucket[RATE_BINS];
  int                 total;
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};


static void init_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist          *hist,
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                                const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
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                                const vpx_rational_t      *fps) {
  int i;

  /* Determine the number of samples in the buffer. Use the file's framerate
   * to determine the number of frames in rc_buf_sz milliseconds, with an
   * adjustment (5/4) to account for alt-refs
   */
  hist->samples = cfg->rc_buf_sz * 5 / 4 * fps->num / fps->den / 1000;

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  /* prevent division by zero */
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  if (hist->samples == 0)
    hist->samples = 1;

  hist->pts = calloc(hist->samples, sizeof(*hist->pts));
  hist->sz = calloc(hist->samples, sizeof(*hist->sz));
  for (i = 0; i < RATE_BINS; i++) {
    hist->bucket[i].low = INT_MAX;
    hist->bucket[i].high = 0;
    hist->bucket[i].count = 0;
  }
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}


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static void destroy_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist *hist) {
  free(hist->pts);
  free(hist->sz);
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}


static void update_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist          *hist,
                                  const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
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                                  const vpx_codec_cx_pkt_t  *pkt) {
  int i, idx;
  int64_t now, then, sum_sz = 0, avg_bitrate;

  now = pkt->data.frame.pts * 1000
        * (uint64_t)cfg->g_timebase.num / (uint64_t)cfg->g_timebase.den;

  idx = hist->frames++ % hist->samples;
  hist->pts[idx] = now;
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  hist->sz[idx] = (int)pkt->data.frame.sz;
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  if (now < cfg->rc_buf_initial_sz)
    return;

  then = now;

  /* Sum the size over the past rc_buf_sz ms */
  for (i = hist->frames; i > 0 && hist->frames - i < hist->samples; i--) {
    int i_idx = (i - 1) % hist->samples;

    then = hist->pts[i_idx];
    if (now - then > cfg->rc_buf_sz)
      break;
    sum_sz += hist->sz[i_idx];
  }

  if (now == then)
    return;

  avg_bitrate = sum_sz * 8 * 1000 / (now - then);
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  idx = (int)(avg_bitrate * (RATE_BINS / 2) / (cfg->rc_target_bitrate * 1000));
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  if (idx < 0)
    idx = 0;
  if (idx > RATE_BINS - 1)
    idx = RATE_BINS - 1;
  if (hist->bucket[idx].low > avg_bitrate)
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    hist->bucket[idx].low = (int)avg_bitrate;
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  if (hist->bucket[idx].high < avg_bitrate)
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    hist->bucket[idx].high = (int)avg_bitrate;
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  hist->bucket[idx].count++;
  hist->total++;
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}

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static void show_rate_histogram(struct rate_hist          *hist,
                                const vpx_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
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                                int                        max_buckets) {
  int i, scale;
  int buckets = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < RATE_BINS; i++) {
    if (hist->bucket[i].low == INT_MAX)
      continue;
    hist->bucket[buckets++] = hist->bucket[i];
  }

  fprintf(stderr, "\nRate (over %dms window):\n", cfg->rc_buf_sz);
  scale = merge_hist_buckets(hist->bucket, &buckets, max_buckets);
  show_histogram(hist->bucket, buckets, hist->total, scale);
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}

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#define mmin(a, b)  ((a) < (b) ? (a) : (b))
static void find_mismatch(vpx_image_t *img1, vpx_image_t *img2,
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                          int yloc[4], int uloc[4], int vloc[4]) {
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  const unsigned int bsize = 64;
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  const unsigned int bsizey = bsize >> img1->y_chroma_shift;
  const unsigned int bsizex = bsize >> img1->x_chroma_shift;
  const int c_w = (img1->d_w + img1->x_chroma_shift) >> img1->x_chroma_shift;
  const int c_h = (img1->d_h + img1->y_chroma_shift) >> img1->y_chroma_shift;
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  unsigned int match = 1;
  unsigned int i, j;
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  yloc[0] = yloc[1] = yloc[2] = yloc[3] = -1;
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  for (i = 0, match = 1; match && i < img1->d_h;