aom_temporal_svc_encoder.c 31.4 KB
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/*
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 * Copyright (c) 2016, Alliance for Open Media. All rights reserved
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 *
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 * This source code is subject to the terms of the BSD 2 Clause License and
 * the Alliance for Open Media Patent License 1.0. If the BSD 2 Clause License
 * was not distributed with this source code in the LICENSE file, you can
 * obtain it at www.aomedia.org/license/software. If the Alliance for Open
 * Media Patent License 1.0 was not distributed with this source code in the
 * PATENTS file, you can obtain it at www.aomedia.org/license/patent.
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 */

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//  This is an example demonstrating how to implement a multi-layer VPx
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//  encoding scheme based on temporal scalability for video applications
//  that benefit from a scalable bitstream.

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#include <assert.h>
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#include <math.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

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#include "./aom_config.h"
#include "../aom_ports/aom_timer.h"
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#include "aom/vp8cx.h"
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#include "aom/aom_encoder.h"
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#include "../tools_common.h"
#include "../video_writer.h"
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static const char *exec_name;

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void usage_exit(void) { exit(EXIT_FAILURE); }
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// Denoiser states, for temporal denoising.
enum denoiserState {
  kDenoiserOff,
  kDenoiserOnYOnly,
  kDenoiserOnYUV,
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  kDenoiserOnYUVAggressive,
  kDenoiserOnAdaptive
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};

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static int mode_to_num_layers[12] = { 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 2, 3, 3, 3 };
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// For rate control encoding stats.
struct RateControlMetrics {
  // Number of input frames per layer.
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  int layer_input_frames[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Total (cumulative) number of encoded frames per layer.
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  int layer_tot_enc_frames[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Number of encoded non-key frames per layer.
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  int layer_enc_frames[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Framerate per layer layer (cumulative).
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  double layer_framerate[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Target average frame size per layer (per-frame-bandwidth per layer).
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  double layer_pfb[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Actual average frame size per layer.
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  double layer_avg_frame_size[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Average rate mismatch per layer (|target - actual| / target).
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  double layer_avg_rate_mismatch[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Actual encoding bitrate per layer (cumulative).
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  double layer_encoding_bitrate[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS];
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  // Average of the short-time encoder actual bitrate.
  // TODO(marpan): Should we add these short-time stats for each layer?
  double avg_st_encoding_bitrate;
  // Variance of the short-time encoder actual bitrate.
  double variance_st_encoding_bitrate;
  // Window (number of frames) for computing short-timee encoding bitrate.
  int window_size;
  // Number of window measurements.
  int window_count;
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  int layer_target_bitrate[AOM_MAX_LAYERS];
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};

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// Note: these rate control metrics assume only 1 key frame in the
// sequence (i.e., first frame only). So for temporal pattern# 7
// (which has key frame for every frame on base layer), the metrics
// computation will be off/wrong.
// TODO(marpan): Update these metrics to account for multiple key frames
// in the stream.
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static void set_rate_control_metrics(struct RateControlMetrics *rc,
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                                     aom_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg) {
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  unsigned int i = 0;
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  // Set the layer (cumulative) framerate and the target layer (non-cumulative)
  // per-frame-bandwidth, for the rate control encoding stats below.
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  const double framerate = cfg->g_timebase.den / cfg->g_timebase.num;
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  rc->layer_framerate[0] = framerate / cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0];
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  rc->layer_pfb[0] =
      1000.0 * rc->layer_target_bitrate[0] / rc->layer_framerate[0];
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  for (i = 0; i < cfg->ts_number_layers; ++i) {
    if (i > 0) {
      rc->layer_framerate[i] = framerate / cfg->ts_rate_decimator[i];
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      rc->layer_pfb[i] = 1000.0 * (rc->layer_target_bitrate[i] -
                                   rc->layer_target_bitrate[i - 1]) /
                         (rc->layer_framerate[i] - rc->layer_framerate[i - 1]);
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    }
    rc->layer_input_frames[i] = 0;
    rc->layer_enc_frames[i] = 0;
    rc->layer_tot_enc_frames[i] = 0;
    rc->layer_encoding_bitrate[i] = 0.0;
    rc->layer_avg_frame_size[i] = 0.0;
    rc->layer_avg_rate_mismatch[i] = 0.0;
  }
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  rc->window_count = 0;
  rc->window_size = 15;
  rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate = 0.0;
  rc->variance_st_encoding_bitrate = 0.0;
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}

static void printout_rate_control_summary(struct RateControlMetrics *rc,
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                                          aom_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
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                                          int frame_cnt) {
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  unsigned int i = 0;
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  int tot_num_frames = 0;
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  double perc_fluctuation = 0.0;
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  printf("Total number of processed frames: %d\n\n", frame_cnt - 1);
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  printf("Rate control layer stats for %d layer(s):\n\n",
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         cfg->ts_number_layers);
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  for (i = 0; i < cfg->ts_number_layers; ++i) {
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    const int num_dropped =
        (i > 0) ? (rc->layer_input_frames[i] - rc->layer_enc_frames[i])
                : (rc->layer_input_frames[i] - rc->layer_enc_frames[i] - 1);
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    tot_num_frames += rc->layer_input_frames[i];
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    rc->layer_encoding_bitrate[i] = 0.001 * rc->layer_framerate[i] *
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                                    rc->layer_encoding_bitrate[i] /
                                    tot_num_frames;
    rc->layer_avg_frame_size[i] =
        rc->layer_avg_frame_size[i] / rc->layer_enc_frames[i];
    rc->layer_avg_rate_mismatch[i] =
        100.0 * rc->layer_avg_rate_mismatch[i] / rc->layer_enc_frames[i];
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    printf("For layer#: %d \n", i);
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    printf("Bitrate (target vs actual): %d %f \n", rc->layer_target_bitrate[i],
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           rc->layer_encoding_bitrate[i]);
    printf("Average frame size (target vs actual): %f %f \n", rc->layer_pfb[i],
           rc->layer_avg_frame_size[i]);
    printf("Average rate_mismatch: %f \n", rc->layer_avg_rate_mismatch[i]);
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    printf(
        "Number of input frames, encoded (non-key) frames, "
        "and perc dropped frames: %d %d %f \n",
        rc->layer_input_frames[i], rc->layer_enc_frames[i],
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        100.0 * num_dropped / rc->layer_input_frames[i]);
    printf("\n");
  }
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  rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate = rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate / rc->window_count;
  rc->variance_st_encoding_bitrate =
      rc->variance_st_encoding_bitrate / rc->window_count -
      (rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate * rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate);
  perc_fluctuation = 100.0 * sqrt(rc->variance_st_encoding_bitrate) /
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                     rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate;
  printf("Short-time stats, for window of %d frames: \n", rc->window_size);
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  printf("Average, rms-variance, and percent-fluct: %f %f %f \n",
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         rc->avg_st_encoding_bitrate, sqrt(rc->variance_st_encoding_bitrate),
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         perc_fluctuation);
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  if ((frame_cnt - 1) != tot_num_frames)
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    die("Error: Number of input frames not equal to output! \n");
}

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// Temporal scaling parameters:
// NOTE: The 3 prediction frames cannot be used interchangeably due to
// differences in the way they are handled throughout the code. The
// frames should be allocated to layers in the order LAST, GF, ARF.
// Other combinations work, but may produce slightly inferior results.
static void set_temporal_layer_pattern(int layering_mode,
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                                       aom_codec_enc_cfg_t *cfg,
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                                       int *layer_flags,
                                       int *flag_periodicity) {
  switch (layering_mode) {
    case 0: {
      // 1-layer.
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      int ids[1] = { 0 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 1;
      *flag_periodicity = 1;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 1;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // Update L only.
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      layer_flags[0] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      break;
    }
    case 1: {
      // 2-layers, 2-frame period.
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      int ids[2] = { 0, 1 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 2;
      *flag_periodicity = 2;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
#if 1
      // 0=L, 1=GF, Intra-layer prediction enabled.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF;
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      layer_flags[1] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF;
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#else
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      // 0=L, 1=GF, Intra-layer prediction disabled.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF;
      layer_flags[1] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_LAST;
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#endif
      break;
    }
    case 2: {
      // 2-layers, 3-frame period.
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      int ids[3] = { 0, 1, 1 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 3;
      *flag_periodicity = 3;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, Intra-layer prediction enabled.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[1] = layer_flags[2] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF |
          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      break;
    }
    case 3: {
      // 3-layers, 6-frame period.
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      int ids[6] = { 0, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 6;
      *flag_periodicity = 6;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 6;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF, Intra-layer prediction enabled.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[3] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      layer_flags[1] = layer_flags[2] = layer_flags[4] = layer_flags[5] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      break;
    }
    case 4: {
      // 3-layers, 4-frame period.
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      int ids[4] = { 0, 2, 1, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 4;
      *flag_periodicity = 4;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF, Intra-layer prediction disabled.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
      layer_flags[2] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      layer_flags[1] = layer_flags[3] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      break;
    }
    case 5: {
      // 3-layers, 4-frame period.
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      int ids[4] = { 0, 2, 1, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 4;
      *flag_periodicity = 4;
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      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
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      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF, Intra-layer prediction enabled in layer 1, disabled
      // in layer 2.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[2] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[1] = layer_flags[3] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      break;
    }
    case 6: {
      // 3-layers, 4-frame period.
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      int ids[4] = { 0, 2, 1, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 4;
      *flag_periodicity = 4;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF, Intra-layer prediction enabled.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[2] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[1] = layer_flags[3] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF;
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      break;
    }
    case 7: {
      // NOTE: Probably of academic interest only.
      // 5-layers, 16-frame period.
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      int ids[16] = { 0, 4, 3, 4, 2, 4, 3, 4, 1, 4, 3, 4, 2, 4, 3, 4 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 16;
      *flag_periodicity = 16;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 5;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 16;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 8;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[3] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[4] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF;
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      layer_flags[1] = layer_flags[3] = layer_flags[5] = layer_flags[7] =
          layer_flags[9] = layer_flags[11] = layer_flags[13] = layer_flags[15] =
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              AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
              AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[2] = layer_flags[6] = layer_flags[10] = layer_flags[14] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF;
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      layer_flags[4] = layer_flags[12] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
      layer_flags[8] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF;
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      break;
    }
    case 8: {
      // 2-layers, with sync point at first frame of layer 1.
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      int ids[2] = { 0, 1 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 2;
      *flag_periodicity = 8;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF.
      // ARF is used as predictor for all frames, and is only updated on
      // key frame. Sync point every 8 frames.

      // Layer 0: predict from L and ARF, update L and G.
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      layer_flags[0] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      // Layer 1: sync point: predict from L and ARF, and update G.
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      layer_flags[1] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      // Layer 0, predict from L and ARF, update L.
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      layer_flags[2] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      // Layer 1: predict from L, G and ARF, and update G.
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      layer_flags[3] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ENTROPY;
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      // Layer 0.
      layer_flags[4] = layer_flags[2];
      // Layer 1.
      layer_flags[5] = layer_flags[3];
      // Layer 0.
      layer_flags[6] = layer_flags[4];
      // Layer 1.
      layer_flags[7] = layer_flags[5];
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      break;
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    }
    case 9: {
      // 3-layers: Sync points for layer 1 and 2 every 8 frames.
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      int ids[4] = { 0, 2, 1, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 4;
      *flag_periodicity = 8;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF.
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      layer_flags[0] = AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
      layer_flags[1] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF;
      layer_flags[2] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[3] = layer_flags[5] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF;
      layer_flags[4] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
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      layer_flags[6] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF;
      layer_flags[7] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ENTROPY;
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      break;
    }
    case 10: {
      // 3-layers structure where ARF is used as predictor for all frames,
      // and is only updated on key frame.
      // Sync points for layer 1 and 2 every 8 frames.

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      int ids[4] = { 0, 2, 1, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 4;
      *flag_periodicity = 8;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF.
      // Layer 0: predict from L and ARF; update L and G.
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      layer_flags[0] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF;
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      // Layer 2: sync point: predict from L and ARF; update none.
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      layer_flags[1] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ENTROPY;
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      // Layer 1: sync point: predict from L and ARF; update G.
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      layer_flags[2] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      // Layer 2: predict from L, G, ARF; update none.
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      layer_flags[3] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ENTROPY;
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      // Layer 0: predict from L and ARF; update L.
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      layer_flags[4] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF;
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      // Layer 2: predict from L, G, ARF; update none.
      layer_flags[5] = layer_flags[3];
      // Layer 1: predict from L, G, ARF; update G.
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      layer_flags[6] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      // Layer 2: predict from L, G, ARF; update none.
      layer_flags[7] = layer_flags[3];
      break;
    }
    case 11:
    default: {
      // 3-layers structure as in case 10, but no sync/refresh points for
      // layer 1 and 2.
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      int ids[4] = { 0, 2, 1, 2 };
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      cfg->ts_periodicity = 4;
      *flag_periodicity = 8;
      cfg->ts_number_layers = 3;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[0] = 4;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[1] = 2;
      cfg->ts_rate_decimator[2] = 1;
      memcpy(cfg->ts_layer_id, ids, sizeof(ids));
      // 0=L, 1=GF, 2=ARF.
      // Layer 0: predict from L and ARF; update L.
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      layer_flags[0] =
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          AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_REF_GF;
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      layer_flags[4] = layer_flags[0];
      // Layer 1: predict from L, G, ARF; update G.
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      layer_flags[2] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST;
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      layer_flags[6] = layer_flags[2];
      // Layer 2: predict from L, G, ARF; update none.
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      layer_flags[1] = AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_GF | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ARF |
                       AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_LAST | AOM_EFLAG_NO_UPD_ENTROPY;
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      layer_flags[3] = layer_flags[1];
      layer_flags[5] = layer_flags[1];
      layer_flags[7] = layer_flags[1];
      break;
    }
  }
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
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  VpxVideoWriter *outfile[AOM_TS_MAX_LAYERS] = { NULL };
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  aom_codec_ctx_t codec;
  aom_codec_enc_cfg_t cfg;
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  int frame_cnt = 0;
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  aom_image_t raw;
  aom_codec_err_t res;
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  unsigned int width;
  unsigned int height;
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  int speed;
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  int frame_avail;
  int got_data;
  int flags = 0;
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  unsigned int i;
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  int pts = 0;             // PTS starts at 0.
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  int frame_duration = 1;  // 1 timebase tick per frame.
  int layering_mode = 0;
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  int layer_flags[AOM_TS_MAX_PERIODICITY] = { 0 };
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  int flag_periodicity = 1;
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#if AOM_ENCODER_ABI_VERSION > (4 + AOM_CODEC_ABI_VERSION)
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  aom_svc_layer_id_t layer_id = { 0, 0 };
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#else
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  aom_svc_layer_id_t layer_id = { 0 };
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#endif
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  const VpxInterface *encoder = NULL;
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  FILE *infile = NULL;
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  struct RateControlMetrics rc;
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  int64_t cx_time = 0;
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  const int min_args_base = 11;
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  aom_bit_depth_t bit_depth = AOM_BITS_8;
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  int input_bit_depth = 8;
  const int min_args = min_args_base + 1;
#else
  const int min_args = min_args_base;
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  double sum_bitrate = 0.0;
  double sum_bitrate2 = 0.0;
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  double framerate = 30.0;
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  exec_name = argv[0];
  // Check usage and arguments.
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  if (argc < min_args) {
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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    die(
        "Usage: %s <infile> <outfile> <codec_type(vp8/vp9)> <width> <height> "
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        "<rate_num> <rate_den> <speed> <frame_drop_threshold> <mode> "
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        "<Rate_0> ... <Rate_nlayers-1> <bit-depth> \n",
        argv[0]);
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#else
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    die(
        "Usage: %s <infile> <outfile> <codec_type(vp8/vp9)> <width> <height> "
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        "<rate_num> <rate_den> <speed> <frame_drop_threshold> <mode> "
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        "<Rate_0> ... <Rate_nlayers-1> \n",
        argv[0]);
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  }

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  encoder = get_aom_encoder_by_name(argv[3]);
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  if (!encoder) die("Unsupported codec.");
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  printf("Using %s\n", aom_codec_iface_name(encoder->codec_interface()));
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  width = strtol(argv[4], NULL, 0);
  height = strtol(argv[5], NULL, 0);
  if (width < 16 || width % 2 || height < 16 || height % 2) {
    die("Invalid resolution: %d x %d", width, height);
  }

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  layering_mode = strtol(argv[10], NULL, 0);
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  if (layering_mode < 0 || layering_mode > 12) {
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    die("Invalid layering mode (0..12) %s", argv[10]);
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  }

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  if (argc != min_args + mode_to_num_layers[layering_mode]) {
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    die("Invalid number of arguments");
  }

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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  switch (strtol(argv[argc - 1], NULL, 0)) {
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    case 8:
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      bit_depth = AOM_BITS_8;
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      input_bit_depth = 8;
      break;
    case 10:
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      bit_depth = AOM_BITS_10;
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      input_bit_depth = 10;
      break;
    case 12:
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      bit_depth = AOM_BITS_12;
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      input_bit_depth = 12;
      break;
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    default: die("Invalid bit depth (8, 10, 12) %s", argv[argc - 1]);
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  }
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  if (!aom_img_alloc(
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          &raw, bit_depth == AOM_BITS_8 ? AOM_IMG_FMT_I420 : AOM_IMG_FMT_I42016,
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          width, height, 32)) {
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    die("Failed to allocate image", width, height);
  }
#else
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  if (!aom_img_alloc(&raw, AOM_IMG_FMT_I420, width, height, 32)) {
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    die("Failed to allocate image", width, height);
  }
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  // Populate encoder configuration.
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  res = aom_codec_enc_config_default(encoder->codec_interface(), &cfg, 0);
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  if (res) {
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    printf("Failed to get config: %s\n", aom_codec_err_to_string(res));
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    return EXIT_FAILURE;
  }

  // Update the default configuration with our settings.
  cfg.g_w = width;
  cfg.g_h = height;

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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  if (bit_depth != AOM_BITS_8) {
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    cfg.g_bit_depth = bit_depth;
    cfg.g_input_bit_depth = input_bit_depth;
    cfg.g_profile = 2;
  }
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  // Timebase format e.g. 30fps: numerator=1, demoninator = 30.
  cfg.g_timebase.num = strtol(argv[6], NULL, 0);
  cfg.g_timebase.den = strtol(argv[7], NULL, 0);

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  speed = strtol(argv[8], NULL, 0);
  if (speed < 0) {
    die("Invalid speed setting: must be positive");
  }

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  for (i = min_args_base;
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       (int)i < min_args_base + mode_to_num_layers[layering_mode]; ++i) {
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    rc.layer_target_bitrate[i - 11] = strtol(argv[i], NULL, 0);
    if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp8", 3) == 0)
      cfg.ts_target_bitrate[i - 11] = rc.layer_target_bitrate[i - 11];
    else if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp9", 3) == 0)
      cfg.layer_target_bitrate[i - 11] = rc.layer_target_bitrate[i - 11];
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  }

  // Real time parameters.
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  cfg.rc_dropframe_thresh = strtol(argv[9], NULL, 0);
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  cfg.rc_end_usage = AOM_CBR;
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  cfg.rc_min_quantizer = 2;
  cfg.rc_max_quantizer = 56;
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  if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp9", 3) == 0) cfg.rc_max_quantizer = 52;
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  cfg.rc_undershoot_pct = 50;
  cfg.rc_overshoot_pct = 50;
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  cfg.rc_buf_initial_sz = 500;
  cfg.rc_buf_optimal_sz = 600;
  cfg.rc_buf_sz = 1000;

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  // Disable dynamic resizing by default.
  cfg.rc_resize_allowed = 0;

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  // Use 1 thread as default.
  cfg.g_threads = 1;

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  // Enable error resilient mode.
  cfg.g_error_resilient = 1;
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  cfg.g_lag_in_frames = 0;
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  cfg.kf_mode = AOM_KF_AUTO;
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  // Disable automatic keyframe placement.
  cfg.kf_min_dist = cfg.kf_max_dist = 3000;

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  cfg.temporal_layering_mode = VP9E_TEMPORAL_LAYERING_MODE_BYPASS;

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  set_temporal_layer_pattern(layering_mode, &cfg, layer_flags,
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                             &flag_periodicity);

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  set_rate_control_metrics(&rc, &cfg);

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  // Target bandwidth for the whole stream.
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  // Set to layer_target_bitrate for highest layer (total bitrate).
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  cfg.rc_target_bitrate = rc.layer_target_bitrate[cfg.ts_number_layers - 1];
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  // Open input file.
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  if (!(infile = fopen(argv[1], "rb"))) {
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    die("Failed to open %s for reading", argv[1]);
  }

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  framerate = cfg.g_timebase.den / cfg.g_timebase.num;
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  // Open an output file for each stream.
  for (i = 0; i < cfg.ts_number_layers; ++i) {
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    char file_name[PATH_MAX];
    VpxVideoInfo info;
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    info.codec_fourcc = encoder->fourcc;
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    info.frame_width = cfg.g_w;
    info.frame_height = cfg.g_h;
    info.time_base.numerator = cfg.g_timebase.num;
    info.time_base.denominator = cfg.g_timebase.den;

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    snprintf(file_name, sizeof(file_name), "%s_%d.ivf", argv[2], i);
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    outfile[i] = aom_video_writer_open(file_name, kContainerIVF, &info);
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    if (!outfile[i]) die("Failed to open %s for writing", file_name);
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    assert(outfile[i] != NULL);
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  }
  // No spatial layers in this encoder.
  cfg.ss_number_layers = 1;

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// Initialize codec.
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#if CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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  if (aom_codec_enc_init(
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          &codec, encoder->codec_interface(), &cfg,
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          bit_depth == AOM_BITS_8 ? 0 : AOM_CODEC_USE_HIGHBITDEPTH))
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#else
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  if (aom_codec_enc_init(&codec, encoder->codec_interface(), &cfg, 0))
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#endif  // CONFIG_AOM_HIGHBITDEPTH
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    die_codec(&codec, "Failed to initialize encoder");

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  if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp8", 3) == 0) {
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_CPUUSED, -speed);
    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_NOISE_SENSITIVITY, kDenoiserOff);
    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_STATIC_THRESHOLD, 1);
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  } else if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp9", 3) == 0) {
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    aom_svc_extra_cfg_t svc_params;
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_CPUUSED, speed);
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_AQ_MODE, 3);
    aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_FRAME_PERIODIC_BOOST, 0);
    aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_NOISE_SENSITIVITY, 0);
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_STATIC_THRESHOLD, 1);
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_TUNE_CONTENT, 0);
    aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_TILE_COLUMNS, (cfg.g_threads >> 1));
    if (aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_SVC, layering_mode > 0 ? 1 : 0))
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      die_codec(&codec, "Failed to set SVC");
    for (i = 0; i < cfg.ts_number_layers; ++i) {
      svc_params.max_quantizers[i] = cfg.rc_max_quantizer;
      svc_params.min_quantizers[i] = cfg.rc_min_quantizer;
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    }
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    svc_params.scaling_factor_num[0] = cfg.g_h;
    svc_params.scaling_factor_den[0] = cfg.g_h;
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_SVC_PARAMETERS, &svc_params);
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  }
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  if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp8", 3) == 0) {
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_SCREEN_CONTENT_MODE, 0);
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  }
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  aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_TOKEN_PARTITIONS, 1);
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  // This controls the maximum target size of the key frame.
  // For generating smaller key frames, use a smaller max_intra_size_pct
  // value, like 100 or 200.
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  {
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    const int max_intra_size_pct = 900;
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    aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_MAX_INTRA_BITRATE_PCT,
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                      max_intra_size_pct);
  }
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  frame_avail = 1;
  while (frame_avail || got_data) {
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    struct aom_usec_timer timer;
    aom_codec_iter_t iter = NULL;
    const aom_codec_cx_pkt_t *pkt;
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#if AOM_ENCODER_ABI_VERSION > (4 + AOM_CODEC_ABI_VERSION)
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    // Update the temporal layer_id. No spatial layers in this test.
    layer_id.spatial_layer_id = 0;
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#endif
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    layer_id.temporal_layer_id =
        cfg.ts_layer_id[frame_cnt % cfg.ts_periodicity];
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    if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp9", 3) == 0) {
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      aom_codec_control(&codec, VP9E_SET_SVC_LAYER_ID, &layer_id);
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    } else if (strncmp(encoder->name, "vp8", 3) == 0) {
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      aom_codec_control(&codec, AOME_SET_TEMPORAL_LAYER_ID,
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                        layer_id.temporal_layer_id);
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    }
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    flags = layer_flags[frame_cnt % flag_periodicity];
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    if (layering_mode == 0) flags = 0;
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    frame_avail = aom_img_read(&raw, infile);
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    if (frame_avail) ++rc.layer_input_frames[layer_id.temporal_layer_id];
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    aom_usec_timer_start(&timer);
    if (aom_codec_encode(&codec, frame_avail ? &raw : NULL, pts, 1, flags,
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                         AOM_DL_REALTIME)) {
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      die_codec(&codec, "Failed to encode frame");
    }
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    aom_usec_timer_mark(&timer);
    cx_time += aom_usec_timer_elapsed(&timer);
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    // Reset KF flag.
    if (layering_mode != 7) {
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      layer_flags[0] &= ~AOM_EFLAG_FORCE_KF;
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    }
    got_data = 0;
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    while ((pkt = aom_codec_get_cx_data(&codec, &iter))) {
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      got_data = 1;
      switch (pkt->kind) {
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        case AOM_CODEC_CX_FRAME_PKT:
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          for (i = cfg.ts_layer_id[frame_cnt % cfg.ts_periodicity];
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               i < cfg.ts_number_layers; ++i) {
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            aom_video_writer_write_frame(outfile[i], pkt->data.frame.buf,
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                                         pkt->data.frame.sz, pts);
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            ++rc.layer_tot_enc_frames[i];
            rc.layer_encoding_bitrate[i] += 8.0 * pkt->data.frame.sz;
            // Keep count of rate control stats per layer (for non-key frames).
            if (i == cfg.ts_layer_id[frame_cnt % cfg.ts_periodicity] &&
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                !(pkt->data.frame.flags & AOM_FRAME_IS_KEY)) {
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              rc.layer_avg_frame_size[i] += 8.0 * pkt->data.frame.sz;
              rc.layer_avg_rate_mismatch[i] +=
                  fabs(8.0 * pkt->data.frame.sz - rc.layer_pfb[i]) /
                  rc.layer_pfb[i];
              ++rc.layer_enc_frames[i];
            }
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          }
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          // Update for short-time encoding bitrate states, for moving window
          // of size rc->window, shifted by rc->window / 2.
          // Ignore first window segment, due to key frame.
          if (frame_cnt > rc.window_size) {
            sum_bitrate += 0.001 * 8.0 * pkt->data.frame.sz * framerate;
            if (frame_cnt % rc.window_size == 0) {
              rc.window_count += 1;
              rc.avg_st_encoding_bitrate += sum_bitrate / rc.window_size;
              rc.variance_st_encoding_bitrate +=
                  (sum_bitrate / rc.window_size) *
                  (sum_bitrate / rc.window_size);
              sum_bitrate = 0.0;
            }
          }
          // Second shifted window.
          if (frame_cnt > rc.window_size + rc.window_size / 2) {
            sum_bitrate2 += 0.001 * 8.0 * pkt->data.frame.sz * framerate;
            if (frame_cnt > 2 * rc.window_size &&
                frame_cnt % rc.window_size == 0) {
              rc.window_count += 1;
              rc.avg_st_encoding_bitrate += sum_bitrate2 / rc.window_size;
              rc.variance_st_encoding_bitrate +=
                  (sum_bitrate2 / rc.window_size) *
                  (sum_bitrate2 / rc.window_size);
              sum_bitrate2 = 0.0;
            }
          }
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          break;
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        default: break;
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      }
    }
    ++frame_cnt;
    pts += frame_duration;
  }
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  fclose(infile);
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  printout_rate_control_summary(&rc, &cfg, frame_cnt);
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  printf("\n");
  printf("Frame cnt and encoding time/FPS stats for encoding: %d %f %f \n",
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         frame_cnt, 1000 * (float)cx_time / (double)(frame_cnt * 1000000),
         1000000 * (double)frame_cnt / (double)cx_time);
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  if (aom_codec_destroy(&codec)) die_codec(&codec, "Failed to destroy codec");
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  // Try to rewrite the output file headers with the actual frame count.
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  for (i = 0; i < cfg.ts_number_layers; ++i) aom_video_writer_close(outfile[i]);
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  aom_img_free(&raw);
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  return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}